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1

Why did American southerners want to keep slavery from 1930-1945

Black slaves were needed for work on cotton, tobacco and sugar plantations, they could be exploited.

2

What were the Jim Crow Laws?

The Jim Crow laws were named after a character in a plantation song that Black slaves used to sing. institutionalized racial discrimination.

3

How were Black people in the south prevented from voting?

To prevent black people in the south from voting, they would be made to pay a large amount of money in which they could not pay, they also made them sit a very hard literacy test to see if they were intelligent enough.

4

Describe the beliefs of the KKK?

established in 1865, after the American civil war, the Ku Klux Klan wanted to make sure white people would stay supreme, only White Anglo Saxon Protestants (WASP) who promised to defend the US from Black people. They paraded in the evenings in white robes and hoods to symbolize white supremacy and purity.

5

What was the migration north?

In 1910, 89% of all black Americans remained in Southern states, and nearly 80% of those lived in rural areas. However, between 1915 and 1920, atleast 500,000 blacks migrated north. some estimates double that number to a million. Reasons for their departure from the south are as follows:
- from 1913, falling cotton prices brought an economic depression across the South.
- In 1915, severe flooding caused many Black southerner houses alongside the Mississippi river to be destroyed.
Black Southerners were attracted to the north because:
- Northern industries were going through an economic boom as war in Europe created a demand for goods.
- Due to many White as well as Black Americans having to leave for war in Europe, this left many open job opportunities.
- Salaries were higher in the north.

6

What was the impact of the Wall Street Crash of 1929?

- by 1933, 25% of the population of the US were unemployed (14 million)
- 2 million black farmers were forced off the land.
- 60% unemployment rate for blacks in northern cities

7

What was the New Deal and what did it do for Black Americans?

Signed by Roosevelt, the New Deal set up lots of schemes to help the unemployed, starving and homeless and therefore a lot of Black people, as well as white people, were helped.
Improvements? B.A employed in government, 1 million B.A employed job schemes, FERA gave aid to B.A. and NAACP established for the advancement of coloured people.
However,
Continuity? no anti lynching laws, CCC payed lower wages for Black americans

8

Describe the Scottsboro Trial?

In 1931, nine young black men were accused of raping two white girls on a train in Alabama. After a series of bitter trials, four of the young men were sentenced to long prison sentences - even though the lawyers argued that the accusations were false. It was to be later discovered that the women were lying.

9

How was WII a Catalyst for change for black americans at home?

Change:
- 400, 000 B.A migrated north from the South to the US industrial centres
- on average, they doubled their wages
- the 1943 Detroit riot sewed the seeds for the C.R movement to begin!
Continuity:
- Still faced racial discrimination
- workers of both skin colours had racial tensions, over the war, there were riots in 47 cities
- NAACP membership rose from 50,000 to 450,000 during the war

10

How was WII a Catalyst for change for black americans away (armed forces)?

Change:
- over 1 million Blacks joined the army
- they could eventually fight where they weren't seen as worthy enough to
- Supreme Commander Eisenhower strongly supported it
- 1946 government ordered navy to end racial discrimination
Continuity:
- segregation continued within the forces
- Blacks weren't given 'proper' jobs e.g supplies, cooks etc, referred to as "mules"
- Blacks given dangerous jobs, accident of July 1944, 323 people died, mostly blacks.
- Black soldiers posted in Britain saw an alternative society with no segreagation

11

Why was the Brown Case of 1954 important?

The Brown Case was important because it was the corner stone of legal challenges against segregation. The Brown Case was specifically important because Judge Earl Warren of the Supreme Court went in favour of Linda Brown.
furthermore it officially ended segregation in all schools, this gave the civil rights movement momentum.
However, by 1960, there were still 6 southern states which had no integrated schools and after the ending of segregation in the education system, there was a white backlash.
- led to little rock

12

In terms of Change/progress and continuity, how important was Little Rock High School 1957?

Progress:
- Central High School was somewhat integrated
- The President was clearly in support of integrated schools
- media exposed racial segregation and violence
- galvanised the C.R.M
Continuity:
- Only 9 students, they experienced racial abuse.
- many schools in the south privatised to stem the tide of integration.
- By 1960, still 6 Southern states that had no integrated schools

13

Why was the Montgomery Bus Boycott of Dec 1955-Nov 1956 significant?

Progress:
- All transport (bus) was desegregated by the Supreme Court
- Rosa Parks and MLK became significant names to the black community
- showed the importance of the Black community
- segregated buses were made illegal by the supreme Court

14

What was the significance of the lunch counter sit-ins and the freedom rides?

Both forms of protests were non violent and were successful.

15

What happened in Birmingham Alabama 1963?

- MLK and Ralph Abernathy were arrested
- Police chief "Bull Connor" arrests any protestors - set dogs/hoses
- Childrens crusade, 1000 children at 10AM leave school and protest for MLKs imprisonment
- JFK intervenes personally
- in 1964, after JFKs assassination, Civil Rights Act 1964 is enacted.

16

Summarize Birmingham, Alabama, 1963?

B'ham, Alabama, was the most racist and segregated city in the US. MLK and CRM decided to focus on it to bring change and make a point. MLK and Ralph Abernathy were arrested by the Racist polic chief Bull Connor. As word was spread that MLK was imprisoned, 1000 school children decided to protest against the police's racist actions. they were met by Police dogs and hoses. the children were arrested and put into prison. This continued until JFK intervened to restore peace.

17

What was the 16th street Baptist Church Bombing?

in 1963, 4 young girls attending Sunday school went to the basement of their church to get their robes, a loud explosion took place, wrecking the church and killing the girls. The suspected person who set the explosion was Robert Chambliss, however he was only charged with possession of dynamite.

18

How Much Progress had been made with the CRM by 1963?

Progress:
- montgomery bus boycott
- Brown Case
- SNCC, SCLC
- end of Jim Crow laws
- MLK emerges as leader of CRM
Continuity:
- privatised schools to avoid intergration
- ku klux klan still around
- White backlash e.g Emmett Till, Little Rock & 16th street baptist church bombing
- no civil rights enacted
- Black activists consistently discriminated e.g MLKs home being bombed, Malcolm X life threatened

19

What was the significance of the March on Washington?

- There was no violent backlash
- it was televised nationally
- it put pressure on the government to make the Civil Right actions
- MLK became a significant character "I Have A Dream" speech

20

Other than MLK, who else contributed to the CRM in the form of non violence?

- James Bevel
- Ralph Abernathy
- Daisy Bates

21

Other than Malcolm X who else led Black power movements?

- Stokely Carmichael
- Angela Davis
- Marcus Garvey

22

What were the reasons for the race riots which peaked from 1965-67

The riots were mainly made up of angry Black youths influenced by the ideology of Black power movements that were advocated by Stokely Carmichael, Angela Davis and Malcolm X (before he converted to being a Sunni Muslim)
- The riot in the Watts district of L.A left 1072 injured, 34 dead and 4000 arrested, furthermore it caused about 40 million dollars in damage

23

How much Black progress was made In the 70s and 80s in terms of Politics, Economics and Sport?

POLITICAL PROGRESS:
- Many Blacks became mayors and councillors
- Colin Powell becomes first C.O.S
CONTINUITY:
- Only 121 B.A representatives of US Congress since 1880
ECONOMIC PROGRESS:
- The number of Black families wages within $20,000-$49,000 increased
CONTINUITY:
- Large number of B.A still continued to live under the poverty line
- Still faced discrimination, as banks continued to hesitate to grant mortgages to B.A even though they could afford the exspenses
SPORT PROGRESS:
- Carl Lewis won 9 Olympic gold medals
- Mohammed Ali inspired a generation
CONTINUITY:
- Interracial policy took a long time in golf
- Still some White exclusive sports

24

How much Black progress was made In the 70s and 80s in terms of Music, TV + Films and Literature/Education?

MUSIC PROGRESS:
- 1982, Michael Jacksons album "Thriller" topped music charts around the world
- Rap music became a phenomenon
EDUCATION PROGRESS:
- Tom Morrison won Nobel Prize in 1993
- Cornel West became notable figure through his books on philosophy and racial matters
CONTINUITY:
- 1978, still barely any racial mixing in some cities
- Opposition to intergration after C.R.A 1964
TV/FILM PROGRESS:
- Oprah Winfrey becomes media mogul
- Cinema has shown the public the horrors of racism
- 1999, 16% of television characters on network TV were Black
CONTINUITY:
- B.A found it very hard to break into the world of Sports presentation
- Only Greg Grumbel and Robin Roberts have moved into prestigious network positions

25

Describe the Rodney King beating?

The Rodney King beating took place in L.A, 1991, when several police officers pulled Rodney King out of his car, to arrest him, however, they decided to beat him profoundly, luckily a passer by managed to film it. It was observed at the hospital that King had several fractures and bruises, and even some permanent brain damage.

26

What were the L.A Riots of 1992?

The L.A riots were not caused by the actual beating of Rodney King, but the Jury's verdict of not penalising the Police Officers, that had clearly beaten Rodney King from the footage recorded.
This enraged people, especially in L.A, especially as it suggested racial discrimination was still present even within the Police force!

27

Give some facts about the L.A Riots?

- The Riots caused 5000 buildings to be burned
- it is estimated that during the riots, at any given moment, there were 3 fires taking place within L.A
- 17 government buildings were destroyed
- there many reports of rape and looting and even drive by shootings
- 11,000 arrests were made, 5500 latinos, 5000 black and 500 whites.

28

What is Affirmative Action?

Affirmative action is positive discrimination, it refers to policies that take factors including race, religion, colour, sex, or national origin into consideration in order to benefit an under-represented group in areas of employment, education and business.
The concept of Positive Discrimination was introduced in the early 1960s as a way to combat racial discrimination in the hiring process, and in 1967, the concept was expanded to include gender.

29

ESSAY QUESTION: CHANGE AND CONTINUITY BETWEEN 1930-1969 FOR BLACK AMERICANS Part 1

In the 1930s:
- B.A faced much discrimination, particularly in the South where the Jim Crow laws were enacted, Black Peoples liberty was much more restricted in the South than in the North, however whether a Black person lived in the north or the South, they'd still face segregation. Whereas, in the North Black people didn't suffer as much discrimination, in the south, Organisations like the KKK carried out lynchings, castrations and whippings predominantly in the South of the US.
During the 1940s:
- We see the involvment of B.As in WWII, this acted as a catalyst for change at home and away. during the war 400,000 Black Americans were able to move North, and on average due to industries booming in the north because of the war, the Black workers would on average have their wages doubled. However, poor workers of both skin colours had racial tensions during the war, there race riots in 47 different cities over the war.
- In the armed forces, over 1 million Black American men joined where they were not seen as worthy enough to, however they still faced a great deal of discrimination, the navy officially banned segregation however, the Army did not.
Perhaps the most progress was made during the 50s and 60s:
- Shocking attrocities such as the Emmett Till case in Money, Mississippi 1955, and the 16th street Baptist Church bombing in 1963, brought media attention to the 'grand' American notion as being twisted and troubled, this media attention sparked people to become more aware of racism as being wrong. The Brown Case of 1954 and the Little Rock High School incident in 1957, brought change to the American Education System, for the first time, we see the law being in favour of black people which was seldom seen, not only this, but the president was in favour of intergration as well! However, much white violence was shown upon the arrival of an intergrated school system in the US, and 6 southern states refused to intergrate schools.
- During the 50s and 60s we saw MLK and his passive resistant movement emerge for the fight for civil rights amongst B.A. However, where we had this peaceful, non violent protest movement, a different group emerged. Led by Malcolm X, a member of the Nation of Islam, where he advocated violence to be used where necessary, Malcolm X, for the 12 years he was a member of the Nation of Islam, advocated for a separate society for blacks and whites.
- By 1964, the civil rights act was enacted and a year after the voting Right was enacted as well. However we still see some continuity after the summit of black equality has been reached, race riots occurred in 125 cities across the states from 1965-1967, made up, by mainly angry young black youths brought up in poverty and amongst racist whites.

30

ESSAY QUESTION: CHANGE AND CONTINUITY BETWEEN 1970-2000 FOR BLACK AMERICANS Part 2

During the 1970s and 1980s:
- vast amounts of prgoress was made by Black individuals.
Within Music, very popular stars like Michael Jackson, Stevie Wonder etc. found huge success.
For the first ever in American history, Black councillors and mayors were emerging around the country. However, in contrast from the brilliant progress made, most Black people still lived in poverty. There was still barely any racial mixing seen in any cities around the U.S.
In the 90s:
- We saw the Rodney King beating by several white officers in L.A 1991, some doctors that treated him described his bones as being turned to "powder".
When the court ruled the officers as being innocent, although video footage contradicted this judgement, there were riots in L.A. The riots caused over 5000 buildings to be burned and 11,000 arrests were made. The Rodney King Beating is perhaps a suggestion to racial discrimination still occurring

31

When did America adopt the policy of Isolationism, and name some events that took place during this Policy, furthermore How and Why it changed?

- Pre 1930s till 1941
- Neutrality Acts, Cash and Carry
- Pearl Harbour forced the US to change its foreign policy and so did Roosevelts relationship with Churchill

32

When did America adopt the policy of Interventionism, and name some events that took place during this Policy, furthermore How and Why it changed?

- 1941 - 45
- War in the Pacific/Japan, D-Day and Europe, atom bombs
- Stalin's influence on Eastern Europe caused the US to change its foreign policy, disagreements over Germany, the Domino Theory and "Who was the best?" ideologically speaking

33

When did America adopt the policy of Containment, and name some events that took place during this Policy, furthermore How and Why it changed?

- 1947 - 1971
- (1948) Berlin airlift (success), Berlin Wall (1961, success), Vietnam (65-73, failure)
- containment failed (Vietnam exposes this), China + USSR fall out, Soviet - Sino split, COLD WAR WAS EXSPENSIVE! Protests at home

34

When did America adopt the policy of Detente, and name some events that took place during this Policy, furthermore How and Why it changed?

- 1971-79
- SALT/Nixon visits China/handshake in space/Ping pong democracy
- USSR invasion of Afghanistan/ Reagan describes Russia as "Evil Empire"

35

When did the second Cold war start and finish, Name some events whilst it occurred and why did it end?

- 1979 - 85
- SDI/Boycott of Olympics/Russias invasion of afghan
- Collapse of Soviet Union/America needs new enemy/focuses on the resource Oil hence why the US focuses on the Persian gulf

36

What was and still is Americas Foreign Policy?

- 90s
- THE WAR ON TERROR!

37

Why was America's foreign policy Isolationism during the 30s?

- America saw the war in Europe as being "Europe's problem" and after the first world war, America was still suffering economically after its losses
- America lost over 400,000 troops in the first world war
- Roosevelt promised the American people that he would not send the US into war
- America wanted to stimulate its own economy
- The Fordney McCumbe Tariff of 1922 was an act issued to benefit American business

38

What were the 5 neutrality acts, 1935-1939?

- The first neutrality act was in 1935, The president had prohibited US ships from carrying US made munitions to countries at war(an arms embargo)
- In 1936, the 2nd act, banned loans or credit to countries at war
- The 3rd act, 1937, allowed nations involved in a war to buy any goods but munitions from the US provided they pay in cash and used their own ships.
- The fourth act authorized the president to list the commodities other than munitions to be paid for on deliveries and made travel on ships of countries at war unlawful.
- the fifth neutrality act, sept 21, 1939, Roosevelt proposes to congress the Cash and Carry Act should replace the neutrality acts, this helped the US help its allies. however in 1941, due to US allies becoming indebted to the US, the lend-lease Act was enacted

39

Describe the attack on Pearl Harbour?

December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked the US naval fleet, Pearl Harbour, situated in Hawaii. The attack was daring because it involved the Japanese force sailing more than 3000 miles before launching its strike.
US intelligence discovered the Japanese movements but failed to inform Pearl Harbour in time.
360 torpedo planes and bombers launched from Japanese carriers 400 km away, attacked the US fleet.
- 2345 US servicemen killed
- 1240 injuries
- 57 civilians killed
- 35 wounded
other damage:
- 2 destroyers sunk
- 188 aircraft destroyed
- 155 aircraft damaged

40

What was the effects of the attack?

In the space for 2 hours, the US Pacific fleet was crippled, but in fact the was not as damaging as it might have been. By chance, the fleets four aircraft carriers were not in port that day. In addition, the Japanese made no attempt to destroy the huge oil storage tanks which supplied the US navy with its fuel. The immediate result was to bring the US into the war as, on December 8, Britain and the US declared war on Japan. Germany and as allies of Japan, then declared war on the US.

41

Why did Russia invade afghanistan, 1979?

Russia invaded afghanistan to prop up its communist government, as the iron curtain in Europe began to fall, America boycotted the 1980 Olympics.

42

What was the Battle of midway?

The Battle of midway was one of the most crucial battles of WW21, The battle successfully destroyed Japan's naval force when the Americans ruined four of its own carriers.

43

Why was the atomic bomb attack on Japan, 1945, important?

Two atomic bombs were dropped on both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Within a week, the Japanese government had surrendered.
138,000 were killed in Hiroshima, and 48,000 in Nagasaki.
The Japanese Prime Minister and military leaders signed the formal surrender on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
The attack on Pearl Harbour, ensured Japan's involvement in the War.

44

What were the agreements at Yalta?

The Big Three agreed to hunt down the war criminals who were responsible for the genocide.
Stalin agreed to enter the war against Japan once Germany had surrendered.
They all agreed to join The United Nations Organisation which would aim to keep world peace.
Eastern Europe would be allowed to select its own government.

45

What were the Disagreements at Potsdam?

The Big Three disagreed over what to do over Germany.
Stalin wanted to cripple Germany to protect the USSR against future threats. Trumann did not want to repeat the mistake of the Treaty of Versailles.
They disagreed over Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe. Stalin wanted the Slavs to unite so no one would dare move a finger against them. The USSR wanted to have a lot of power over the Iron Curtain, however Trumann and Churchill wanted to give Eastern Europe independence.

46

What was the Trumann doctrine?

The Trumann Doctrine of 1947, was a policy aimed at stopping the spread of Communism either by military intervention or economic aid.

47

What was the Marshall Aid Plan?

The European Recovery Program, was a plan enacted by George C Marshall with 'altruistic' intentions. The plan was to prevent the spread of communism by giving economic aid to Europe, the thinking was that, a strong economy would prevent countries from turning to Communism. An 18 billion dollar injection would stimulate capitalism in Europe. furthermore, European countries that had taken aid from America would be indebted to them.

48

What caused the Berlin Blockade and airlift, and what were the consequences?

The Berlin Blockade and airlift 1948-49 was caused by Stalin not allowing America to come through to West Berlin, he blocked the railway lines from West Berlin to Trizonia (West Germany).
America sent supplies by Aircraft, from June, 1948 till may 1949 where Stalin called off the blockade. There was 225,000 made with an average of 4000 tonnes of supplies sent each day.

49

What was the Warsaw Pact?

The Warsaw Pact, so named because the treaty was signed in Warsaw, included the Soviet Union, Albania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria as members. The treaty called on the member states to come to the defense of any member attacked by an outside force and it set up a unified military command under Marshal Ivan S. Konev of the Soviet Union.
The Warsaw Pact came to an end in 1991 along with the soviet union.

50

How to answer C question?

- reference to both sources
- discus changes that occurred
- 2 events of why these changes came about
- offer judgement on significance

51

How to answer D style exam Question?

- highlight key concept word
- use that word throughout answer
- aim for about 4 fully developed factors, clear analysis, good history + judgement

52

Why did Detente happen?

- U.S looking for new policy (CONTAINMENT failed in Vietnam)
- Cold War was exspensive (150M a day at one point)
- Wanted peace
- The dangers of Brinkmanship was shown in the CMC
- Protest Movements, Kent University, 4 killed

53

Why did Containment happen?

- Trumann was an anti Communist
- The Trumann Doctrine
- Domino Theory
- Pearl Harbour
- Bad relations with Russia after Berlin Blockade and disagreements at potsdam

54

Why did the second Cold War happen?

- USSR invasion of afghanistan, America saw it as a threat to move into the Persian Gulf.
- Reagan was an anti Communist who wanted to confront Russia where possible

55

Why was the CMC significant?

- Hotline between Kremlin and White house
- exposed dangers of brinkmanship
- JFK emerges as a hero, Khrushchev backed down
- partial success for Containment, Cuba still remained communist

56

Why was the Vietnam war significant?

- failure for Containment
- Peace movement in the US had an impact on US foreign policy
- lead to detente
- stained the office of 3 presidents

57

significance of WWII to the CRM?

- Roosevelt desegregated parts of the armed forces
- Order 8802, focused on discrimination in the workplace only gov. however.
- Black Americans gained employment
- motivated CRM, Riot of Detroit 1943 especially
- membership for NAACP by 1945 went from 50,000 to 450,000, People wanted equality

58

What was the significance of the March on Washington?

- Challenged Gov
- lead to the CR act a year later
- biggest march to date, 250,000, 1/5 were white
- MLK emerges as an inspiration with his speech
- televised nationally

59

What was the significance of the Berlin Blockade and airlift?

- first serious flashpoint in the Cold War, could have escalated
- stand up to USSR, showed Western determination to save West Berlin
- intensified East-West rivalry as it lead to the arms race, NATO + WARSAW PACT!

60

What was Salt 1?

SALT 1, was when agreements between the major superpowers were made regarding no further production of ballistic missiles.
Successfully limited the number of nuclear weapons they held.
the agreement for SALT 2 was never made due to the Russian invasion of Afghan.

61

Why Nixons visit to Moscow in 1974 important?

Both leaders agreed to develop beneficial co-operation in commercial, economic, scientific, technical, and cultural fields. It promoted increased understanding for both countries

62

Why was the Apollo-Soyuz mission, 1975, important?

It was a joint space mission in which an American Apollo spacecraft and a Soviet Soyuz Spacecraft docked high above Earth, it was the handshake in space, this was a symbolic gesture to the future relations between the US and USSR.

63

Why were Glasnost and Perestoika important policies?

They led to the loosening of the Soviet Unions grip on Eastern Europe which ultimately led to November 1989, the collapse of the Berlin Wall.

64

How to answer A question? Source A

- Use the Source
- Use your own Knowledge
- Must explicitly reference the source and one other fact

65

How to answer B Question? Describe

- specific detail well developed
- four pieces of information

66

How did the New Deal help the lives of B.A in the 30s?

- provided 1 million jobs for BA
- employment rose from 50,000 in 1933, to 200,000 in 1945
- blacks employed in government

67

describe black power movement beliefs

- rejected MLKs teachings
-Mexico Olympics Black Power symbol made
- frustrated with rate of change
- militant
- by 1968, they had 5000 members

68

C: Brown Case

- first legal breakthrough for the NAACP, supreme court ruled it as unconstitutional
- Supreme Court was on the side of the CRM
- Led to Little Rock
- Short Term, Linda Brown was able to go to the school
- Nonetheless, by 1960, 6 southern states had no integration

69

C: Little Rock

- President Eisenhower personally intervened by sending 1000 para troopers to help
- 8 out of the 9 students graduated, Ernest Green being the first graduate from and all white school
- Media attention exposed horrific racism in the deep south, thanks to the media we were revealed that chants such as "2-4-6-8 we don't wanna integrate" were yelled at the students.
- somewhat peaceful protest
- only 8 students graduated, progress needed in terms of comparison to the rest of the population

70

C: Malcolm X

- appealed to young disillusioned BA in the north
- use of violence (his advocation) was very attractive to youths
- perhaps influenced race riots in 65-67
- his oratory skills were very provocative and influential, as well as appealing "who taught you to hate yourself?"
- He converted World Heavy Weight Champion Mo Ali to Nation of Islam

71

C: CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION 1960s

- CRA 64, stopped segregation, the pinnacle of the CRM
- 65 Voting rights act, ended literacy tests
- 1967, Carl Stokes becomes 1st Black mayor ohio
- led to success in 70s and 80s

72

C: Pearl Harbour 1941

- ended isolationism, neutrality acts enshrined this
- USA enters war
- Atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing over 150,000 people
- USA emerged as a super power

73

C: Truman

- Truman doctrine 1947, led to containment, which shaped the cold war for the next 20 years
- disagreements at potsdam, anti communist stance led to US - USSR tensions
- he authorised the atom bombs
- Marshall Aid
- Berlin Airlift

74

C: Berlin Wall 1961

- Split between East and West, island in the sea of communism
- flashpoint 1, 1948 blockade, nearly started epicentre of cold war, could have caused WW3, however Stalin backed down and it became a success for containment
- Berlin Wall, over 100 people died trying to flee.
- 1989, torn down, symbolises end of cold war

75

C: Ronald Reagan

- anti communist stance, "evil empire", he was willing to stand off against any red threat, eg afghan
- good relations with Gorbachev, signing of INF treaty 1987/summit meetings
- 3rd most popular president, cold war ends, seen as responsible for the decline of the soviet union.

76

What was SDI?

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983, to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.