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Flashcards in Mojalalaneerkoopdert Deck (71)
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In order (from top to bottom) name the different fractions found in the fractionating column?

Petrol, Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel oil, Fuel oil and bitumen


Give some of the uses of: Petrol, Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel Oil, Fuel oil, and Bitumen?

Petrol - bottled gas, fuel
Gasoline - fuel for cars
Naphtha - making chemicals
Kerosene - aircraft fuel
Diesel - cars, buses and lorries
Fuel oil - fuel for ships and power stations
Bitumen - used for roads and roofs


What would happen if an alkali and acid were added together and they neutralized each other out?

It would produce water, also it would be exothermic.


What are the uses of Oxygen?

It can be used in medicine as an aid to breathing, as well as producing high temperatures for oxyacetylene welding, in liquid form to be burned as rocket fuel.


What are the uses, as well as advantages and disadvantages of Hydrogen?

It can be used as a fuel, in the food industry for making margarine, as well as in the petrochemicals industry for making certain types of hydrocarbon.

It has a high energy yield, and is non polluting.

However, it's highly flammable, needs to be stored in a pressurised tank, there are few filling stations for it (as a fuel for vehicles)


What is the size of a nano particle?

1nm = 1 x 10(-9) m


What is the name of the process which separates crude oil into fractions?

fractional distillation.


What are some of the uses for polyethene?

carrier bags and kitchenware.


What are some of the uses for polypropene?

milk crates and car batteries.


properties of non-metals?

- poor conductors of electricity
- non-malleable
- non ductile
- soft/brittle solids
- low density
- low melting and boiling points


properties of metals?

- good conductors
- malleable
- ductile
- hard, dense, shiny
- high melting and boiling points
- sonorous


What is reduction?

involves the removal of oxygen atoms from a chemical


what is oxidation?

involves the addition of oxygen atoms to a chemical


explain the the method in which we extract aluminium

Aluminium oxide (bauxite) is dissolved in molten cryolite, an aluminium compound with a lower melting point than aluminium oxide.
Both the negative electrode (cathode) and positive electrode (anode) are made of graphite, a form of carbon.
Aluminium metal forms at the negative electrode and sinks to the bottom of the tank, where it is tapped off.
Oxygen forms at the positive electrodes. This oxygen reacts with the carbon of the positive electrodes, forming carbon dioxide, and they gradually burn away. Consequently, the positive electrodes have to be replaced frequently, which adds to the cost of the process.


What are the sustainability issues with extracting metals from their ores?

- Siting of the plant (contaminates the land and takes up a lot of space)
- Fuel and energy costs
- greenhouse gas emissions
- impact of recycling
- effects of the extraction of the ores on the environment and the local population


Properties and uses of aluminium?

- strong, low density, good conductor of heat and electricity, resistant to corrosion
- high voltage power lines, saucepans, window and greenhouse frames, drinks cans, ladders


Properties and uses of copper?

- very good conductor of electricity and heat, malleable, ductile, lustrous, attractive colour
- water pipes, electrical wires, jewellery


Properties and uses of titanium?

- hard, strong, low density, high melting point, resistant to corrosion
- jet engine and spacecraft parts, industrial machine parts, car parts, medical implants


What are the uses of nano-particles?

they are added to make products anti bacterial, used in used in house paints, used in sunblock creams because they block harmful ultraviolet light from the Sun


What are the potential health and environmental risks to nano particles?

More research needs to go into them, it is known that in high quantities, metals like silver can be toxic, more research is needed


State one reason why adding chlorine to the water supply makes the water safe to drink.

chlorine kills bacteria


What happens when a metal carbonate reacts with an acid?

it forms metal salts, water and CO2


How do we test for a carbonate?

we add an acid, if the substance effervesces, producing carbon dioxide gas, then it is a carbonate


How does oneself test for Carbon Dioxide?

pass it through limewater, if the limewater turns cloudy/milky then there is Carbon Dioxide


dilute hydrochloric acid added with black powder D, gives us copper chloride solution, what is black powder D?

copper oxide


dilute hydrochloric acid added with metal A gives us zinc chloride solution and gas B? whats metal A and gas B?

metal A = zinc
gas B = hydrogen


fractional distillation


Atomic structure


cracking alkanes


Crude oil