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Flashcards in Mojalalaneerkoopdert Deck (71):

In order (from top to bottom) name the different fractions found in the fractionating column?

Petrol, Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel oil, Fuel oil and bitumen


Give some of the uses of: Petrol, Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel Oil, Fuel oil, and Bitumen?

Petrol - bottled gas, fuel
Gasoline - fuel for cars
Naphtha - making chemicals
Kerosene - aircraft fuel
Diesel - cars, buses and lorries
Fuel oil - fuel for ships and power stations
Bitumen - used for roads and roofs


What would happen if an alkali and acid were added together and they neutralized each other out?

It would produce water, also it would be exothermic.


What are the uses of Oxygen?

It can be used in medicine as an aid to breathing, as well as producing high temperatures for oxyacetylene welding, in liquid form to be burned as rocket fuel.


What are the uses, as well as advantages and disadvantages of Hydrogen?

It can be used as a fuel, in the food industry for making margarine, as well as in the petrochemicals industry for making certain types of hydrocarbon.

It has a high energy yield, and is non polluting.

However, it's highly flammable, needs to be stored in a pressurised tank, there are few filling stations for it (as a fuel for vehicles)


What is the size of a nano particle?

1nm = 1 x 10(-9) m


What is the name of the process which separates crude oil into fractions?

fractional distillation.


What are some of the uses for polyethene?

carrier bags and kitchenware.


What are some of the uses for polypropene?

milk crates and car batteries.


properties of non-metals?

- poor conductors of electricity
- non-malleable
- non ductile
- soft/brittle solids
- low density
- low melting and boiling points


properties of metals?

- good conductors
- malleable
- ductile
- hard, dense, shiny
- high melting and boiling points
- sonorous


What is reduction?

involves the removal of oxygen atoms from a chemical


what is oxidation?

involves the addition of oxygen atoms to a chemical


explain the the method in which we extract aluminium

Aluminium oxide (bauxite) is dissolved in molten cryolite, an aluminium compound with a lower melting point than aluminium oxide.
Both the negative electrode (cathode) and positive electrode (anode) are made of graphite, a form of carbon.
Aluminium metal forms at the negative electrode and sinks to the bottom of the tank, where it is tapped off.
Oxygen forms at the positive electrodes. This oxygen reacts with the carbon of the positive electrodes, forming carbon dioxide, and they gradually burn away. Consequently, the positive electrodes have to be replaced frequently, which adds to the cost of the process.


What are the sustainability issues with extracting metals from their ores?

- Siting of the plant (contaminates the land and takes up a lot of space)
- Fuel and energy costs
- greenhouse gas emissions
- impact of recycling
- effects of the extraction of the ores on the environment and the local population


Properties and uses of aluminium?

- strong, low density, good conductor of heat and electricity, resistant to corrosion
- high voltage power lines, saucepans, window and greenhouse frames, drinks cans, ladders


Properties and uses of copper?

- very good conductor of electricity and heat, malleable, ductile, lustrous, attractive colour
- water pipes, electrical wires, jewellery


Properties and uses of titanium?

- hard, strong, low density, high melting point, resistant to corrosion
- jet engine and spacecraft parts, industrial machine parts, car parts, medical implants


What are the uses of nano-particles?

they are added to make products anti bacterial, used in used in house paints, used in sunblock creams because they block harmful ultraviolet light from the Sun


What are the potential health and environmental risks to nano particles?

More research needs to go into them, it is known that in high quantities, metals like silver can be toxic, more research is needed


State one reason why adding chlorine to the water supply makes the water safe to drink.

chlorine kills bacteria


What happens when a metal carbonate reacts with an acid?

it forms metal salts, water and CO2


How do we test for a carbonate?

we add an acid, if the substance effervesces, producing carbon dioxide gas, then it is a carbonate


How does oneself test for Carbon Dioxide?

pass it through limewater, if the limewater turns cloudy/milky then there is Carbon Dioxide


dilute hydrochloric acid added with black powder D, gives us copper chloride solution, what is black powder D?

copper oxide


dilute hydrochloric acid added with metal A gives us zinc chloride solution and gas B? whats metal A and gas B?

metal A = zinc
gas B = hydrogen


fractional distillation


Atomic structure


cracking alkanes


Crude oil


Extracting metals


making polymers




What evidence is based on Wegener's theory?

- The Earths continents can be roughly fitted together like a jigsaw
- The are few similarities in rock formations on either side of the Atlantic
- similar fossils were found in lands separated by wide oceans
- fossils were found of species that seemed to be in the wrong place (e.g, tropical species in Norway) suggesting continents had moved through regions with different climates


What is the theory for Plate tectonics?

- The Earth's surface is made up of a series of large plates. which are in constant motion
- The movement of the plates is very slow
- The ocean floors are continually moving, spreading from some plate boundaries, and sinking at others
- The movement is caused by convection currents from deep in the Earth


What is Subduction?

Where one plate moves under the other, magma is released and volcanoes can occur


How do mountain ranges form?

When plates collide, their edges crumple, this forms mountain ranges


How can a volcanic eruption occur?

when under pressure, plates that move apart, magma is released, causing a volcanic eruption


What is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere?

Nitrogen - 78%
Oxygen - 21%
Argon - 1%
others - 1%


What was Earth's first atmosphere composition and give an explanation?

- Hydrogen and helium
- Given off as the Earth formed. Both gases are light and would have drifted off into space


What was Earth's second atmosphere composition and give an explanation?

- Carbon dioxide, ammonia, and water vapour
- Produced as a result of the volcanic activity of the young Earth, which was still cooling down. the water vapour condensed to form oceans


What is Earth's third and current atmosphere composition and give an explanation?

- nitrogen, oxygen, argon, others
- much of the carbon dioxide in atmosphere 2 would have dissolved in the oceans. Bacteria in the oceans evolved that could use the carbon dioxide and produce oxygen (photosynthesis). the ammonia was converted by sunlight into nitrogen and hydrogen, but the hydrogen drifted into space.


state and explain the three processes involved in balancing the Earth's atmosphere.

- Photosynthesis, carried out by green plants. it uses up Carbon dioxide and produces oxygen.
- Respiration, carried out by all living things. it uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide
- combustion, burning shit, mainly of fossil fuels, it uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide


Disadvantages of global warming?

- Rising temperatures could cause polar ice caps to melt, flooding low level land around the world
- weather patterns will be disrupted, this could destroy habitats furthermore affecting animals and ecosystems


What are the effects of acid rain?

- coniferous trees are particularly at threat to acid rain, and can be killed by acid rain
- the acid rain can drain into lakes and rivers, lowering pH and also releasing aluminium from the soil. both of these effects kill fish
- limestone reacts with acid, so acid rain severealy damages limestone buildings and statues
- effects aqua life


What does this "Fe(II)" tell us about the iron?

it tells us that the iron is behaving as if it is in group 2


What does this "Fe(III)" tell us about the iron?

it tells us that the iron is behaving as if it is in group 3


When working out chemical formulae, what are Mr Davis' three rules?

- Bare Bones
- Spell Check
- Balance it!


What does Lattice mean?

Lattice is another word for "framework"


What is a characteristic of ionic compounds?

ionic compounds have really high melting and boiling points and melting points, and they dissolve in water


What is the formula that explains electrolysis?

Fe(2)O(3) + 3CO ----> 2Fe + 3CO(2)


in terms of charge, metals are always....?



in terms of charge, non metals are always....?



Calcium (group 2) + chlorine (group 7)



Aluminium (group 3) + Flourine (group 7)



sodium (group 1) and oxygen (group 6)



Sodium (group 1) + nitrate (behaves as if its in group 7)



boron (group 3) + sulfur (group 6)



Lithium (group 1) + sulfur (group 6)



What is a supplier of hydrogen?

an acid


What is a receiver of hydrogen? what is a property of a base?

a base, it can dissolve in water


What is a semi conductor?

a semi conductor is on the border between metals and non metals, sometimes referred to as a metalloid


How do we extract iron?

iron oxide is reduced to iron at high temperatures (in a blast furnace) by the oxidation of carbon (from coke) while carbon (and carbon monoxide) are oxidised to carbon dioxide.


reactions between hydrochloric acid and metal?

forms salts called chlorides,
e.g: metal + hydrochloric acid -----> metal chloride + hydrogen


reactions between metal and sulphuric acid?

forms sulphates
e.g: magnesium + sulphuric acid -----> magnesium sulphate + hydrogen


reactions with metal and nitric acid?

forms nitrates
e.g: magnesium + nitric acid ------> magnesium nitrate + hydrogen


What is Carbon capture?

carbon capture can reduce the carbon dioxide emissions from power stations by around 90%, it is a three stage process
- capturing the CO(2) from power plants and other industrial sources
- transporting it to storage points
- storing it safely in geological sites, such as depleted oil and gas fields


What is Post Combustion?

This involves capturing the Carbon dioxide from the gases given off by burning. a chemical solvent is used to separate Carbon dioxide from the waste gases.


Potassium and Oxygen gives us potassium oxide, formula?

K + O ------> K O
K + O(2) ------> KO(2)
4K + O(2) ------> 2K(2)O


formula for alkenes?

H is double C,
e.g: C(2)H(4)


Regarding electrolysis and the blast furnace, what two metals sorround Carbon?

top = aluminium
bottom = zinc