L7 Cell Communication Flashcards Preview

BMS242 Cell & Molecular > L7 Cell Communication > Flashcards

Flashcards in L7 Cell Communication Deck (35)
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1

Signal types

contact dependent, synaptic, paracrine, endocrine

2

dpp

ligand

3

Example of contact dependent signalling

membrane bound signalling molecule

4

Paracrine signalling

secreted factor that interacts with extracellular matrix components

5

Endocrine signalling

produced by adrenal glands (mostly), wide range of physiological responses

6

Cell responses to signalling

altered metabolism, altered gene expression, altered cell shape or movement

7

Examples of effector proteins in cell signalling

metabolic enzyme, gene regulatory protein, cytoskeletal protein

8

Example of altered gene expression

expression of iroquois family genes in E12 mouse embryo

9

Example of altered cell shape or movement

human neutrophil chasing signal given off by saphylococcus aureus

10

Example of how cells respond to signal

french flag model

11

bicoid gradient function

defines anterior parts of resulting embryo

12

What do thresholds of signal trigger

on/off gene expression

13

What is the fastest cell response to signalling

changing structure of existing protein

14

What is the slowest cell response to signalling

changing protein levels via gene expression

15

Disease caused by signalling mis-regulation

myeloproliferative neoplasms, chronic myeloid leukaemia

16

Myeloproliferative neoplasm mutation

JAK2 V617F mutation in negative regulatory domain

17

Chronic myeloid leukaemia mutation

BCR-Abl fusion protein

18

BCR-Abl fusion protein effect

sustained Abl tyrosine kinase expression by the Bcr promoter/enhancer region

19

Signalling regulation points

ligand, receptor, transduction of signal, effectors can feedback

20

JAK/STAT pathway regulation

down regulation by SOCS negative regulator

21

Notch pathway regulation

lateral inhibition

22

Post-translational signalling regulation

phosphorylation, GTP binding

23

GEF function

GDP to GTP exchange factor

24

Ras function

growth control

25

Rho function

cytoskeleton

26

rab function

endosomal trafficking

27

Effect of modulating GAP and GEF levels

rapidly change the activity of the small GTPase

28

GAP

GTPase activating protein catalyst

29

Two major groups of protein kinase in eucaryotes

serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases

30

Does protein kinase turn genes ON or OFF

ON