L4 Chromosome Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L4 Chromosome Structure Deck (50)
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1

What do diploid eukaryotic cells contain

two copies of each chromosome

2

What can individual chromosomes be easily distinguished

metaphase of mitosis

3

Karotype

organised representation of all chromosomes at metaphase

4

Describe the organisation of individual chromosomes in interphase

occupy distinct subnuclear terriotories

5

Chromosome

highly coiled fibre of chromatin

6

Types of chromatin

euchromatin, heterochromatin

7

Nucleosome

building material of chromosomes

8

Types of histone

4 distinct types

9

Core histones

protein subunit of nucleosome

10

Function of histone tails

interact with proteins, facilitate regulation of chromatin

11

H1

linker histone

12

Function of H1

straps DNA onto histone octamers - limits DNA movement

13

What does H1 facilitate

establishment of transcriptionally silent heterochromatin

14

Interphase chromatin

set of dynamic fractal globules

15

Nuclear periphery in interphase cells composition

transcriptionally inactive DNA

16

Heterochromatin

transcriptionally silent

17

Inner part of the nucleus in interphase cells

RNA transcripts, transcriptionally active genes

18

Telomere

DNA sequences at ends of linear chromosome

19

Telomere function

maintain chromosomal integrity

20

Replication origin

DNA sequence, initiation of DNA replication

21

Centromere

DNA sequences, kinetochore assembly

22

Centromere function

Mediate chromosome segregation

23

Kinetochore

protein complex

24

Kinetochore function

binds microtubules in mitotic spindle

25

Telomerase

DNA polymerase that replicates telomeres

26

True or False - telomeres are double stranded

false

27

Two forms of kinetochore

inner and outer plate

28

Inner kinetochore plate function

binds to chromatin containing alpha satellite DNA

29

Kinetochore outer plate function

binds to protein components of mitotic spindle

30

What do centromeres contain

alpha satellite DNA repeats