L11 Cell Communication II Flashcards Preview

BMS242 Cell & Molecular > L11 Cell Communication II > Flashcards

Flashcards in L11 Cell Communication II Deck (60)
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1

What do endocrine organs secrete?

Hormones

2

Where is adrenaline produced

adrenal glands

3

What is bisoprolol

selective inhibitor of B1 adrenergic receptors

4

Where are B1 adrenergic receptors located

heart

5

Hormone concentrations in the body

very low

6

Hormone receptor qualities

specific and sensitive

7

Role of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

homeostasis maintainence

8

What do the hypothalamus and pituitary gland link?

neuronal and endocrinological systems

9

What is the precursor of steroid hormones

lipids

10

Examples of steroid hormones

cholesterol, cortisol, estradiol, and vitamin d3

11

Properties of steroid hormones

hydrophilic and hydrophobic

12

Why are steroid hormones hydrophilic and hydrophobic

because they are derived from lipids

13

What can steroid hormones penetrate

cell membranes and blood brain barrier

14

Why can steroid hormones penetrate the BBB and PM

because they are hydrophobic and hydrophilic

15

What are the two classes of steroid hormones

corticosteroids and sex steroids

16

What are the subtypes of corticosteroids

glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids

17

What are the subtypes of sex steroids

oestrogens, androgens, progestogens

18

What does the DNA binding domain in nuclear receptors encode

zinc fingers

19

What is the function of zinc fingers in nuclear receptors

access the DNA double helix

20

What do nuclear receptors bind to

hormone response elements of target genes

21

What is the function of nuclear receptors in hormone signalling pathway

link hormone secretion directly to regulation of gene expression of responsive tissues

22

What is the effect of primary response to steroid hormones

induced synthesis of primary response proteins

23

What is the effect of secondary response to steroid hormones

primary response protein shuts off primary response and turns on secondary response genes

24

What does the glucocorticoid receptor regulate

metabolism, catabolism, and biosynthesis

25

What is the effect of dex

triggers upregulation of DNA and transcriptional machinery

26

What are the medical uses of glucocorticoids

immunosuppressants and potent anti-inflammatory agents

27

Side effects of glucocorticoid use

bone loss and glucose dysregulation

28

When are glucocorticoids released

in response to stress and reduced blood sugar levels

29

Where is cortisol released from

adrenal gland

30

Disease with too little cortisol

addisons disease

31

What is addisons disease caused by

primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency

32

Cause of primary adrenal insufficiency

damage to adrenal glands

33

Cause of secondary adrenal insufficiency

lack of adrenocorticotropic hormone

34

Symptoms of addisons disease

depression, flu, nausea, weight loss

35

What disease is associated with high cortisol levels

Cushing's syndrome

36

What can cause Cushing's syndrome

benign adenoma in the pituitary gland, long term steroid use

37

Symptoms of Cushing's syndrome

weight gain, high BP, puffy face

38

What stimulates insulin production

beta cells in the pancreas

39

Role of insulin

regulates blood glucose levels

40

What is type 1 diabetes caused by

destruction of beta cells

41

Insulin receptor structure

hetero-tetramer

42

Insulin receptor bonds

disulphide bonds

43

What regulates insulin receptor activity

tyrosine kinase

44

Function of tyrosine kinase on insulin receptor

phosphorylation

45

First step of insulin signalling

tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor & direct substrates

46

Second step of insulin signalling

activation of lipid kinase - PI3K

47

Third step of insulin signalling

activation of multiple serine/theronine kinases

48

What is the function of insulin receptor substrate proteins

allow binding of lipid kinase

49

What is the function of lipid kinase in hormone signalling

synthesise PIPs at PM

50

What does PIP3 recruit in hormone signalling

phosphoinositide dependent kinase - PDK

51

What does PDK do

phosphorylates AKT

52

Function of AKT in hormone signalling

phosphorylates substrates which then activate downstream targets

53

Hypo-glycemia

excessive insulin

54

Symptoms of hypo-glycemia

low blood sugar levels, death

55

What is type 2 diabetes characterised by

dysregulation of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism

56

Insulin secretion type 2 diabetes

secretion impaired, resistance can occur

57

Treatment for diabetes type 2

metformin

58

Effect of metformin

decreased insulin resistance, reduction of plasma insulin levels

59

What does metformin inhibit

mitochondrial complex I

60

What enzyme does metformin activate

AMP activated protein kinase - regulates glucose metabolism