L11 Cell Communication II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L11 Cell Communication II Deck (60)
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1

What do endocrine organs secrete?

Hormones

2

Where is adrenaline produced

adrenal glands

3

What is bisoprolol

selective inhibitor of B1 adrenergic receptors

4

Where are B1 adrenergic receptors located

heart

5

Hormone concentrations in the body

very low

6

Hormone receptor qualities

specific and sensitive

7

Role of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland

homeostasis maintainence

8

What do the hypothalamus and pituitary gland link?

neuronal and endocrinological systems

9

What is the precursor of steroid hormones

lipids

10

Examples of steroid hormones

cholesterol, cortisol, estradiol, and vitamin d3

11

Properties of steroid hormones

hydrophilic and hydrophobic

12

Why are steroid hormones hydrophilic and hydrophobic

because they are derived from lipids

13

What can steroid hormones penetrate

cell membranes and blood brain barrier

14

Why can steroid hormones penetrate the BBB and PM

because they are hydrophobic and hydrophilic

15

What are the two classes of steroid hormones

corticosteroids and sex steroids

16

What are the subtypes of corticosteroids

glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids

17

What are the subtypes of sex steroids

oestrogens, androgens, progestogens

18

What does the DNA binding domain in nuclear receptors encode

zinc fingers

19

What is the function of zinc fingers in nuclear receptors

access the DNA double helix

20

What do nuclear receptors bind to

hormone response elements of target genes

21

What is the function of nuclear receptors in hormone signalling pathway

link hormone secretion directly to regulation of gene expression of responsive tissues

22

What is the effect of primary response to steroid hormones

induced synthesis of primary response proteins

23

What is the effect of secondary response to steroid hormones

primary response protein shuts off primary response and turns on secondary response genes

24

What does the glucocorticoid receptor regulate

metabolism, catabolism, and biosynthesis

25

What is the effect of dex

triggers upregulation of DNA and transcriptional machinery

26

What are the medical uses of glucocorticoids

immunosuppressants and potent anti-inflammatory agents

27

Side effects of glucocorticoid use

bone loss and glucose dysregulation

28

When are glucocorticoids released

in response to stress and reduced blood sugar levels

29

Where is cortisol released from

adrenal gland

30

Disease with too little cortisol

addisons disease