L79: Reproduction 1 Flashcards Preview

FHB - Endocrinology (by Richie) > L79: Reproduction 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in L79: Reproduction 1 Deck (50)
1

Where is gene encoding for SHBG located?

X chromosome (think XXY Klinefelters - double the amount of SHBG, so less free T!)

2

Where's the SRY gene located?

Y

3

When does Mieosis II resume, in the female ovary

upon fertilization

4

What does SRY encode for?

Testes determining factor (TDF)

5

Gonadal sex determination is
A. Hormone dependent
B. XX or XY dependent

B.

6

Germ cells are precursors for

Spermatogonia or oogonia

7

Coelomic epithelium is a precursor for

Sertoli cells and granulosa cells

8

Mesenchymal cells are precursors for

Leydig and theca cells

9

Leydig and theca cell origin?

Mesenchymal cell

10

Sertoli cells and granulosa cell progenitor?

Coelomic epithelium

11

In a male, the _________ develops into seminiferous tubules, spermatogonia, sertoli cells, and leydig cells

medulla

12

In a female, __________ develops into secondary sex cords, oogonia, theca cells, and granulosa cells

cortex

13

You diagnose a male patient with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Which one of the following pathologies could explain the high FSH/LH with low testosterone?
A. Androgen insensitivity
B. Klinefelter's syndrome
C. Kallman's syndrome
D. Fetal pseudohermaphroditism
E. Turner's syndrome

A or E

14

Turner's syndrome

XO (gonadal dysgenesis) in utero, females need both X chromosomes to develop ovaries. Later on they can be inactivated as bar-bodies. Uterus with no ovary results.

15

Big idea: maleness is

imposed. default is feminine program.

16

Testosterone promotes the preservation of
A. Wolfian ducts
B. Mullerian ducts

A.

17

What hormone, secreted from testes, promotes the atrophy of the mullerian duct?

Anti-mullerian hormone

18

What enzyme makes DHT from T?

5-alpha reductase

19

Which is NOT formed from the Wolffian duct?
A. Epididymis
B. Vas Deferens
C. Seminal vesicles
D. Ejaculatory duct
E. Leydig cells

E. Leydig cells (actually what promote preservation of Wolffian duct in the first place)

20

BIG IDEA: Even though the female program is default, and female structures develop with out a hormone...

...GROWTH TO NORMAL SIZE requires estrogen in the same way that development of male genitalia requires that 2nd testosterone surge at puberty.

21

In utero, after 9 weeks without ____ it will go ahead and make an ovary

Testes determining factor

22

What does finesteride (propecia) do?

blocks 5-alpha reductase

23

Seminiferous tubule dysgenesis

XXY klinefelters

24

Androgen resistance produces

male pseudohermaphroditism

25

male pseudohermaphroditism

female phenotype, underdeveloped female structures due to lack of estradiol, but XY genetic sex.

26

21 hydroxylase deficiency

congenital adrenal hyperplasia

27

What is the mullerian/wolffian duct status of Turner's syndrome?

Developed Mullerian duct
Regressed Wolffian duct

28

What is the mullerian/wolffian duct status of an XY patient, with loss of X-linked gene for androgen receptor?

Regressed Mullerian duct
Regressed Wolffian duct

This patient has SRY, TDF, testes, and testosterone. But T receptors absent. So Wolffian duct will regress since T cannot tell it to remain. Mullerian duct will regress too, since testes is still producing AMH.

29

What is the mullerian/wolffian duct status of an XY patient, with deficient 5 alpha-reductase?

Regressed Mullerian duct
Developed Wolffian duct

...remember 5-alpha reductase converts T to DHT. Only T is necessary to preserve Wolffian duct not DHT. This person might have underdeveloped external genitalia or something, though

30

What is the mullerian/wolffian duct status of an XXY patient?

Developed Mullerian duct
Regressed Wolffian duct

31

Female phenotype with testes

male pseudohermaphroditism
(Eg. Androgen resistant patients. No pubic/axillary hair, undescended testes)

32

male phenotype with ovaries

female pseudohermaphroditism

33

True hermaphrodite

both gonadal sexes present

34

Most testosterone is bound to

Cortisol Binding Globulin (55%)
45% is bound to SHBG
2% is free

35

What is the source of all circulating DHEA

Adrenal cortex (reticularis)

36

Do adrenal androgens (DHEA) influence male accessory organ development?

No.

37

Which is the strongest androgen?
A. Testosterone
B. Androstenediol
C. Androsterone
D. Testosterone
E. Di-hydrotestosterone

E.

38

While only 2% of T is excreted in free form, the rest is

converted to 17-ketosteroids & DHT, conjugated into water soluble forms, then excreted.

39

DIRECT effects of testosterone include

1. Development of epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles.
2. Larynx (male voice lowering)
3. RBC, muscle mass, fat, bone
4. Increased VLDL and LDL, decreased HDL

40

Male pattern baldness. Direct or indirect (DHT) effect of testosterone?

indirect (DHT)

41

In UTERO, DHT promotes development of
A. Epidydimis
B. Vas Deferens
C. Seminal vesicles
D. Penis

D. Penis

note: A, B and C are promoted by T in utero.

42

In UTERO, T promotes development of
A. Penis, urethra
B. Scrotum
C. Prostate
D. Epidydimus

D. Epidydimus (plus vas deferens, seminal vesicles)

A-C are DHT's job in utero

43

In PUBERTY, T promotes development of

Penis
Seminal vesicles
Musculature
Voice
Skeleton
Spermatogenesis

44

In PUBERTY, DHT promotes development of

Scrotum
Prostate
Male pattern bear, balding, escutcheon
Sebaceous glands

45

Treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BHP)

5-alpha reductase inhibitor, suppress DHT thus prostate growth

46

Constant high levels of GnRH is

INHIBITS release of FSH and LH at anterior pituitary

47

Prostate cancer treatment

Androgen receptor blocker (flutamide)
Continuous GnRH agonist (shuts off LH)

48

Testosterone only

Liver (increase VLDL & LDL, decrease HDL)
RBC
Muscle mass
Abdominal visceral fat
Larynx (male voice)
Epidydymis
Vas Deferens
Seminal Vesicles

49

DHT only

Prostate
Beard Growth
Sebum formation
Penis
Scrotum
Urethra
Prostate

50

T and DHT

Seminal vesicles