L77: Metabolic Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

FHB - Endocrinology (by Richie) > L77: Metabolic Homeostasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in L77: Metabolic Homeostasis Deck (40)
1

WHO definition of obesity

BMI greater than 30
Waist-hip ratio greater than 0.95 (men) and 0.85 (women)

2

Metabolic syndrome (Syndrome X)

visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension

3

visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension

Metabolic syndrome (Syndrome X)

4

PPARγ

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: Nuclear steroid hormone receptor. Regulates TG storage and adipocyte differentiation - makes more fat cells

5

Thiazolidinediones (TZD)

PPARγ agonists used to treat insulin resistance and
Type II diabetes “Rosiglitazone = Avandia”)

6

Obese people have high levels of

leptin

7

Leptin is produced by

adipocytes

8

There is a direct relationship between leptin and

total fat

9

Relationship between total fat and plasma
leptin concentrations.

Higher body fat
correlates with increased plasma levels of leptin. Leptin inhibits appetite and food intake during the normal fed state. Obese people have
very high levels of leptin, but are potentially insensitive to leptin effects.

10

Neuropeptide Y

hypothalamic stimulator of appetite

11

Agouti-Related Peptide (AGRP)

hypothalamic stimulator of appetite

12

αMSH

hypothalamic suppressor of appetite

13

Cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART)

hypothalamic suppressor of appetite

14

Leptin inhibits which hypothalamic regulators of appetite?

Neuropeptide Y and AGRP

15

Leptin stimulates which hypothalamic regulators of appetite?

αMSH
CART

16

Insulin does not efficiently transport glucose into cells. Glucose levels are high

Insulin resistance

17

What promotes conversion from T1DM to T2DM?

Beta cell depletion or “exhaustion” will cause conversion from Type II to Type I diabetes

18

Measures average blood glucose
concentrations over a longer period
of time.

Elevated HbA1C: ≥48mMol/l (6.5%)

19

Normal vs. pre-diabetic fasting glucose

Fasting blood glucose: 100-125 mg/dl (pre-diabetes), 126+ T2DM

20

Leptin deficient mice are

morbidly obese

21

HbA1C is effective because the lifespan of RBC is

120 days

22

pre-diabetic fasting glucose?

100-124mg/dl

23

Fasting glucose for T2DM?

126+ mg/dl

24

What are the "3P" symptoms of T2DM?

Polyphagia
Polyuria
Polydipsia

25

Polyphagia

excessive hunger due to inability of cells to utilize glucose "cellular starvation"

26

Polyuria

excess glucose in blood leads to increased plasma osmolarity, excessive water and Na+ loss

27

Polydipsia

excessive thirst due to severe dehydration

28

What does Procose or Glyset do? Hint: alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.

Delays intestinal absorption of carbs

29

What does metformin do?

Inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis, and enhances insulin receptor activity

30

What does "Glipizide" do? Hint: sulfonylurea drug

Closes K+ channel on B-cell, promoting depolarization and Ca+ influx, thus insulin secretion

31

What kind of diabetes exhibits KETOACIDOSIS without insulin therapy?

Type 1 DM

32

Side effect of TZD

weight gain

33

Direct relationship between plasma leptin and

total fat

34

Indirect relationship between ghrelin and

obesity

35

Name 4 counter regulatory hormones to insulin

GH
Cortisol
Catecholamines
Glucagon

36

Declined mental status in DM results from

dehydration accompanying hyper osmotic hyperglycemic state (both T2DM and T1DM)

37

TCF72

most highly associated genetic polymorphism in T2DM. This is a Wnt signaling pathway player, co-activatory of beta-catetenin. Downstream targets regulate B-cell proliferation.

38

Which DM is reversible?

T2DM

39

PDX-1

important for both islet neogenesis and beta-cell proliferation

40

Bonus: what is Exenatide?

incretin mimetic