L69: Endocrinology Basics (Part II) Flashcards Preview

FHB - Endocrinology (by Richie) > L69: Endocrinology Basics (Part II) > Flashcards

Flashcards in L69: Endocrinology Basics (Part II) Deck (41)
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1

Where is serotonin converted into melatonin?

pineal gland

2

What is the basic building block of catecholamines

tyrosine

3

What is the basic building block of indolamines

tryptophan

4

What is the rate limiting step of catecholamine synthesis?

Tyrosine to X-dopa via TYROSINE HYDROXYLASE

5

What is the rate limiting step of indolamine synthesis?

Tryptophan to 5-HTP via TRYPTOPHAN HYDROXYLASE

6

What enzyme catalyzes norepinephrine synthesis, and where is it located?

Dopamine B-hydroxylase. Located in adrenal medulla.

7

What cells in the adrenal medulla are homologous to post-synaptic neurons?

Chromaffin cells

8

Entecapone & benzeride carbidopa

inhibit extracellular conversion of L-dopa to 3-OMD and dopamine, respectively

9

MAOA and MAOB inhibitors

prevent monoamine inactivation

10

SSRI

decrease uptake of 5-HT at synaptic cleft. May lead to desensitization of post-synaptic receptors and negative feedback.

11

N-acetyltransferase is the rate-limiting step for making which hormone?

Melatonin

12

4 examples of + feedback

1. partuition - childbirth 2. Lactation 3. Ovulation 4. Blood clotting (5. when your boss says good job)

13

4 examples of positive feedback

1. partuition - childbirth 2. Lactation 3. Ovulation 4. Blood clotting (5. when your boss says good job)

14

Hypothalamus. What level of axis is this?

Tertiary

15

Pituitary. What level of axis is this?

Secondary

16

Breasts, testes, thyroid. What level of axis is this?

Primary

17

Which has a longer half life: ANP or BNP?

BNP - thus its a useful diagnostic tool.

18

BMP. Higher in men or women?

Women

19

BMP. Increases or decreases with age?

increases

20

BMP. Higher with CHF and renal failure, or lower?

HIgher

21

Normal BMP. Rules out what?

CHF

22

Pt. has high baseline TSH. In response to TRH, TSH increases then returns to high baseline. Significance?

Primary failure at level of thyroid. Since thyroid isn't making T3/T4, then there is no negative feedback to stop pumping out TSH. 

23

Pt. has low baseline TSH that doesn't respond to TRH. Significance?

This means the patient cannot synthesize TSH normally; thus it makes sense he cannot increase TSH in response to TRH. This is indicative of a secondary failure at level of pituitary.

24

Pt. has a slightly higher baseline of TSH, with a protracted return to baseline upon TRH stimulation. Significance?

Tertiary problem at hypothalamus. Slower response to TSH (because pituitary not prepared to recieve TRH for once) and protracted return to baseline. 

25

Does age affect circulating hormone levels?

Yes

26

Factors that affect circulating hormone levels. Name 5

1. Age

2. Sex

3. Body weight

4. Time of day

5. Diet

27

NE acts at alpha or beta adrenergic receptors?

Both

28

Where does the conversion from NE to Epi occur?

adrenal medulla

29

95% of 5HT is made where

gut

30

inactivates and degrades catecholamines

COMT