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Flashcards in Lab Exam 2 Physiology Deck (26)
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1

What structures form sarcomeres

alternating light and dark cross-bands that result from the arrangement of sarcomeres

2

intercalated disks

connect adjoining cells
specialized junctions
found in cardiac muscle

3

What is the EMG

an external recording of electrical activity of a muscle
records combined action potentials

4

Motor units

motor neuron & skeletal muscle fibers
increasing recruitment of motor units increases the number of muscle fibers activated and increases the force of the muscle

5

fetal shunts

two major shunts one between the right atrium and right ventricle and the other between the right and left atrium

one is called the foramen ovale which becomes the fossa ovalis and the other is the ductus arteriosus which becomes the ligamentum arteriosum

6

how do you calculate beats per minute

60/(t2-t1) (the seconds - R-R interval)

7

Waves

P wave - depolarization of atria
QRS wave- initial depolarization of ventricles
T wave- repolarization of ventricles

8

Intervals

PQ - atrial depolarization and delay at AV node
QT- beginning of Q to end of T ventricular excitation
ST- beginning s to beginning t plateau phase of ventricular action potential
TQ- end of t to beginning of Q ventricular cells back at their resting potential

9

Auscultation

listening to the sounds made by body structures as a method of diagnosis

10

systolic
diastolic
heart sounds

systole- ventricles contract
diastole- ventricular relaxation
lub- closure of atrioventricular valves during the isovolumetric contraction phase
dup- closure of semilunar valves during isovolumetric relaxation phase

11

Heart murmurs are caused by

improper functioning of heart valves

12

systolic murmurs vs diastolic murmurs

sm- occur between the first heart sound
dm- between second and first heart sound

13

aortic stenosis

systolic
narrow opening of aortic valve, sharp whooshing sound

14

mitral valve prolapse

systolic
leak in mitral valve, or valve is turned inside out
whoosh sound instead of lub

15

name of the device used to measure blood pressure
normal bp?

sphygmomanometer
120/75 mm Hg

16

what sounds or changes are associated with the systolic pressure reading and the diastolic reading

SP- blood begins to pulse through the partially opened artery which causes turbulent flow (tapping sounds)
DP- artery open smooth and quiet flow (sound disappears)

17

hypertension

chronically high blood pressure
heart works faster which increases strain
risk factor heart disease and stroke
sensed by baroreceptors in aortic and carotid arteries

18

MAP

MAP = CO X TPR
MAP= diastolic + 1/3 systolic

19

What are OPD, examples, test

FEV (forced expiratory test) is for OPD
healthy is 75%-85%
asthma, emphysema, bronchitis
OPD is constricting or blockage of bronchioles

20

Hematocrit

% of the volume of RBC
women- 38%-46%
men- 42% to 54%
low = anemia

21

expiratory reserve volume
tidal volume
inspiratory reserve volume
vital capacity

ERV- maximum volume that can be expired forcefully from lungs following relaxed expiration
Vt- volume of air that passes into and out of lungs in a normal relaxed breathing
IRV- maximum air that can be inspired into the lungs following normal inspiration
VC- maximum ventilation volume (vt+IRV+ERV)

22

Specific gravity

is the measure of the density of a solution, density relative to H20
in urine reflects kidneys ability to form a dilute or concentrated urine
more concentrated = higher specific gravity
increase in SG usually occurs during dehydration or salt loading (increases plasma osmolarity)

23

main waste product of protein (nitrogen) and lipid metabolism
is glucose normally present in the urine

protein- albumin
lipid- ketones
No, glucose in the urine is glycosuria and is caused by diabetes

24

Renal clearance
what does it indicate

volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed by the kidney in a given amount of time
less= reabsorption
more= secretion
Clearance = (Concentration in the urine) x (Urine flow rate) / (Concentration in the plasma)
= U x V / P

25

Pancreas
endocrine & exocrine

exocrine- enzymes to break down proteins, lipids, carbs, nucleic acids
endocrine insulin and glucagon

26

What physiological variable that pertains to renal function is approximately equal to the
clearance of inulin?

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)