Lecture 4 cells and tissues Flashcards Preview

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1

Cell structure (3 parts)

plasma membrane
nucleus
cytoplasm- cytosol (ICF) + organelles

2

Plasma membrane structure
(Fluid mosaic model)

lipid bi layer - phospholipids & cholesterol (unsaturated & saturated tails)
Membrane proteins
Carbohydrate group

3

Membrane proteins

trans-membrane proteins
integral proteins
peripheral proteins

4

Carbohydrate group

attached externally to proteins or phospholipids
ex: glycoprotein or glycolipid

5

Functions of the PM

boundary between ICF and ECF
selectively permeable and transport
cellular communication
structural support

6

Name the basic types of membrane proteins

Transport proteins (channels, carriers, pumps)
Receptors
Enzymes
Structural proteins

7

Channels

Ions pass this way
filled with water
passive
quantenary in structure

8

Carriers

binds to molecule and moves it across membrane
no open to both sides at same time
passive

9

Pumps

Active transport
moves against gradient
requires energy
EX: sodium potassium pump

10

Receptors

receive chemical signals
EX: acetylcholine receptors/neuromuscular junction

11

Enzymes

catalyst
speed up chemical reactions
most are proteins
EX: adenylyl cyclase

12

Structural proteins

support and anchor cells
cell junctions
EX: integrin

13

Nuclear envelope

double membrane
pores to allow communication w/ the cytoplasm
passageway for mRNA

14

Nucleolus

contains proteins and DNA
controls synthesis of rRNA

15

Chromatin

loosely packed DNA and proteins
condenses into chromosomes during cell division

16

Cytoskeleton:

MICROFILAMENTS

network just inside of cell membrane
composed of actin

17

Cytoskeleton:
Microtubules

largest cytoskeleton fiber
made of tubulin
have cilia and flagella
vesicle transport

18

Centrioles

made from microtubules
direct DNA movement during cell division
assemble microtubules
form mitotic spindle

19

Ribosomes

synthesis of proteins
composed of rRNA and protein
subunits ( 1 large, 1 small)
assembles protein chain

20

Rough ER

continuation of outer nuclear membrane
ribosomes on outer membrane
site of protein synthesis (membrane and secretory proteins)

21

Smooth ER

lacks ribosomes
synthesis lipids
concentrates and store calcium ions Ca2+

22

Golgi apparatus

consists of cisternae
surrounded by vesicles
protein modification and packaging

23

Mitochondria

double membrane
2 separate compartments
site of most ATP synthesis in the cell
Where ETC is, aerobic respiration (requires oxygen)
inter membrane space and inner membrane which contains matrix

24

Lysosomes

storage vesicles
contain powerful digestive enzymes
role in programmed cell death

25

Peroxisomes

contain enzymes that break down fatty acids and some foreign materials
produces hydrogen dioxide
contain catalyst that breaks down hydrogen peroxide

26

Tight Junctions

prevent movement and leakage between cells

27

Anchoring junction

anchor cells to one another
withstand pulling and stretching
EX: epidermis and cardiac muscle

28

Gap Junctions

creates cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cells
ion channel allow for communication
EX: cardiac muscle

29

Exchange
functional type

simple squamous epithelial
alveoli of lungs
endothelium

30

Transporting
FT

simple cuboidal and simple columnar epithelial
requires a lot of ATP so it needs more cytoplasm
small intestines
renal tubules