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Flashcards in Lecture 3 (Biomolecules) Deck (43)
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1

Monomer and polymer of carbohydrates

monomers - monosaccharides
polymer - polysaccharides

2

monomer and polymer of lipids

monomer - fatty acid
polymer - triglycerides

3

monomer and polymer of proteins

monomer - amino acids
polymer - polypeptides

4

monomer and polymer of nucleic acids

monomer - nucleotides
polymer - DNA, RNA

5

Hydrolysis reactions

break down polymers into monomers (H2O is added)
A-B +H2O --> A - OH + H - B

6

Dehydration (condensation) reactions

combine monomers into polymers (H2O removed)

7

Carbohydrates
contain?
general formula?
Polar or non-polar?
function/s?

contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen usually in a 1:2:1 ratio
general formula (CH2O)n
polar (contains many -OH groups) soluble in H2O
major energy source for all cells and required by CNS

8

Monosaccharides

Simple Sugars
Building blocks of polysaccharides and nucleotides
Energy Metabolism
Pentoses and hexoses

9

Pentose

is a monosaccharide
5 Carbon (C5H12O5)
Ribose and deoxyribose

10

Hexoses

monosaccharide
6 Carbon (C6H12O6)
Glucose, galactose and fructose
Used to make ATP

11

Disaccharides

2 monomers joined together via dehydration synthesis
maltose = 2 glucose
surcose (table sugar) = glucose + fructose
Lactose = galactose + glucose

12

Polysaccharides

energy storage
- starch in plants
- glycogen in animals, stored in liver and muscle
Structural polysaccharides (Cellulose, Chitin, GAGs)

13

Lipids
Functions
Polar or non polar?

mostly non-polar organic molecules
rich in C-H bonds
mostly insoluble in water
Functions: cell membrane, energy reserves, signaling molecules

14

Classes of lipids

fatty acids
Triglycerides
Phospholipids
Steroids
Eicosanoids

15

Fatty acids

basic building blocks of lipids (monomers)
long chains of hydrocarbons with carboxyl at the end

16

Saturated fatty acids

contain all c-c single bonds
hydrocarbon chains packed closely
more solid
straight chain
(butter, lard, animal fat)

17

unsaturated fatty acids

contain c=c double bonds
forms a kink in the chain making it more lipid and harder to stack
(vegetable oil)
monounsaturated 1 double bond
polyunsaturated 2 or more double bonds

18

Trans fat

Partially hydrogenated oil
chemically modified
unsaturated fats
hydrogenation - adding H to Fa's: unsaturated to saturated
double bonded Fa's produced as a byproduct
produced in manufacturing of some margarine's and vegetable shortening
increase risk of heart disease
lowers HDL (good cholesterol) increase LDL (bad C)

19

Triglycerides

3 fatty acids and a glycerol
gone through dehydration synthesis
energy rich molecules (high in calories)
2x energy as carbohydrates per gram
insoluble in H2O
Body fat (adipose tissue) functions as energy storage

20

Phospholipids

2 fatty acids + glycerol + phosphate group
phospholipid bilayer forms the basic structure of the plasma membrane
Polar head and non polar tails

21

amphipathic molecules

non-polar and polar

22

diglyceride

2 fatty acids + glycerol

23

steroids

4 hydrocarbon ring (cholesterol and derivatives)
Cholesterol - component of cell membrane, precursor to other steroids
steroid hormones: cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, estrogen

24

related steroids

important in tissue metabolism and mineral balance
e.g. corticosteroids and calcitriol

25

Eicosanoids

modified fatty acids with a 5 C ring
many function as a paracrine substances, intercellular signaling
coordinate/direct local cellular activity
vasomotor effects, inflammation and pain

26

Types of eucisanoids

prostaglandins
prostacyclins
thromboxanes

27

Amino acids

building blocks or proteins
contains a central carbon atom, hydrogen atom, amino group, carboxyl group, and a variable R group
20 aa's are used to make proteins, 9 are essential in diet

28

R groups

can be polar, non-polar, acidic (-), basic (+)
different amino acids have different R groups
R group affect protein shape and function
stuck out from chain

29

Peptides

combination of 2 or more amino acids
polymers of amino acids

30

peptide bond

links adjacent amino acids
carboxyl group + amino acids