Lecture 17 Endocrine 2 Flashcards Preview

Physiology > Lecture 17 Endocrine 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 17 Endocrine 2 Deck (40)
Loading flashcards...
1

Hypothalamus

Tropic Hormones (inhibiting and releasing hormones)
part of the brain (diencephalon) controls pituitary gland

2

Pituitary gland

also called hypophysis
major endocrine gland; infundibulum attaches to hypothalamus

3

Anterior Pituitary Gland Releases

TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, GH, prolactin

4

Posterior Pituitary Gland Releases

ADH, oxytocin

5

Pineal Gland Releases

Melatonin

6

Thyroid Gland releases

thyroxine (T4), triiodothronine (T3); calcitonin

7

parathyroid glands

4 on the back of the thyroid gland
secrete PTH (parathyroid hormone)
regulation of Calcium

8

Thymus

thymosin, thymopoietin

9

Adrenal Cortex Secretes

aldosterone, cortisol, androgens

10

Adrenal Medulla

epinephrine and norepinephrine

11

Pancreas

Pancreatic Islets
insulin, glucagon

12

Ovaries/Testes

Females: Estrogen, progesterone
Males: Androgens (testosterone)

13

Placenta

estrogen and progesterone, hCG

14

Secondary Endocrine Organs

GI organs, heart, kidneys, liver, skin
GI hormones ANP, erythropoietin, Vitamin D3, etc.

15

Posterior Pituitary

Also called Neurohypophysis
direct neural connection to hypothalamus
neurosecretory cells originate in hypothalamus
axons in infundibulum
axon terminals in posterior pituitary secrete neurohormones
ADH (vasporessin) and oxytocin

16

Anterior Pituitary

also called Adenohypophysis
Circulatory connection to hypothalamus via hypothalamic -hypophyseal portal system
Neurosecretory cells orignate in hypothalamus, axons in infundibulum, axon terminals in posterior pituitary secrete neurohomrones
anterior pituitary secretes trophic hormones that control other endocrine glands

17

Hypothalamus-Anterior Pituitary Axis
TRH

Hypothalamus releases TRH + -> TSH from anterior pituitary -> thyroid gland (target endocrine gland)

18

Hypothalamus-Anterior Pituitary Axis
CRH

Hypothalamus releases CRH + -> ACTH from anterior pituitary -> adrenal cortex (target endocrine gland)

19

Hypothalamus-Anterior Pituitary Axis
GnRH

Hypothalamus releases GnRH + -> FSH & LH from anterior pituitary -> ovaries/testes (traget endocrine gland)

20

Hypothalamus-Anterior Pituitary Axis
GHRN

Hypothalamus releases GHRN + -> growth hormone from anterior pituitary -> liver, bone, muscle, etc. (target endocrine gland/tissue)

21

Hypothalamus-Anterior Pituitary Axis
PRH

hypothalamus releases PRH + -> prolactin from anterior pituitary -> breasts (target endocrine organ)

22

Effects of thyroid hormones

increase basal metabolic rate
stimulate protein synthesis
developmental effects: nervous and reproductive systems

23

Adrenal Cortex
Mineralocorticoids

(aldosterone)
promotes Na+ retention and K+ excretion by kidneys

24

Adrenal Cortex
Glucocorticoids

(cortisol)
stress hormones, promotes gluconeogenesis
anti-inflammatory

25

Cortisol

stimulates gluconeogenesis
reduces inflammation
suppress immune response (theraputic uses)
Stress hormone

26

Adrenal cortex also secretes

Androgens like testosterone

27

Adrenal Medulla

connection to sympathetic ANS
chromaffin cells secrete epinephrine (e) and norepinephrine (NE)
Epi and NE act via adrenergic receptors on target cells
(alpha adrenergic receptors - constriction of blood vessels)
(beta adrenergic receptors - B1 increase heart rate, B2 bronchodilation)

28

Pancreas

endocrine portion consists of pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans)
beta cells- secrete insulin
alpha cells- secrete glucagon
insulin and glucagon are major actors in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis
exocrine - acini
endocrine - pancreatic islets

29

What cells are most abundant in the pancreas

beta cells

30

Fed (absorptive) State

high blood glucose
right after a meal nutrients are absorbed into the blood
blood glucose levels increase
beta cells secrete insulin
insulin acts to decrease blood glucose levels