Physiology lab exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology lab exam 1 Deck (32):
1

Beer's Law

the amount of light absorbed by a solution is directly proportional to the concentration of the solution

2

Catalase
substrate and product

Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide
substrate - hydrogen peroxide
product - water and molecular oxygen

3

Solution
solute
solvent

solution - solute + solvent
solute- dissolved substance
solvent- the liquid they are dissolved in

4

Hypotonic, isotonic, hypertonic
hemolysis

hypo- expands
hyper- shrinks
hemolysis - cell pops

5

Reflexes and their nerves

Pattelar reflex - femoral nerve
Achilles reflex- tibial nerve
Biceps reflex- musculocutaneous reflex
Triceps reflex- radial nerve

6

How many synapses for muscle spindle stretch reflex
what is a muscle spindle

One synapse
Muscle spindles regulate muscle strength during movement

7

Is the plantar reflex a spinal reflex?

No

8

Normal Plantar reflex vs Babinski sign

Normal- flex the big toe downward and brings the others together
Babinski sign - damage anywhere along the pyramidal tract can cause it, big toe points upward and other toes fan out

9

Referred pain
example
role of somatosensory area

pain that is felt in a diff location from where it occurred
Angina Pectoris - sensation of pain and tightness in the left chest and arm during a heart attack
SA- has a virtual map that identifies locations of sensory inputs in the skin

10

Sensory adaptation
examples

Less action potentials occur
tonic receptors (slow) - muscle spindle stretch reflex receptors
Phasic receptors (fast) - pressure and temp receptors

11

Cornea
Iris

C-where light enters they anterior surface of the eye
-helps bend incoming light
I - muscle that dilates of constricts the pupil

12

Accommodation

process of focusing the eye on objects at different distances
structures involved - iris (convex - closer, flatter- distance) ciliary muscle, suspensory ligaments

13

Myopia
tests

Near-sightedness
can focus on close objects but not distance
Snellen eye chart - person with normal vision can read 20/20 line

14

Hyperopia
test

far-sightedness- can focus on distance but not close objects
used a meter and a pencil

15

Emmetropia

normal vision

16

astigmatism
test

the cornea or lens is abnormally shaped so that incoming light rays can not be focused on a single point

Astigmatism Chart- if positive some lines are in focus while others are not

17

Rods and Cones

Rods- found more in peripheral areas of the retina, can not detect color, more sensitive to low light levels
Cones- highest visual acuity, responsible for color vision

18

Central Fovea

highest density of photoreceptors when you focus on an object that incoming light from the object is sharply focused on the central fovea of the retina
contains only cones

19

Extrinsic eye muscles

control the position of the eyes
6 of them

20

Color Vision

each type of cone contains a slightly different photopigment molecule that absorbs light maximally at a diff wave length
Red- long wave length
Blue- short wave length
green - medium wave length

21

When you see a blue square, yellow, white?

blue- green and blue
yellow - red and green
white - rods

22

Red green color blindness

an x linked recessive trait
they are missing either red or blue cones
more likely in males

23

Conduction deafness

sensory apparatus of the cochlea is functional but sound conduction through the external ear or middle ear is impaired
can feel vibrations transmitted through the skull to the inner ear but unable to hear airborne sound

24

Sensory deafness

cochlear hair cells or cochlear nerve are damaged and are unable to transduce sound or transmit sensory signals to the brain

25

Weber's test

for conduction deafness- sound in effected ear would sound louder cause airborne noise us excluded
Sensory deafness - sound would be heard much less or not at all

26

Simple Squamous Epithelial

Alveoli of lungs, lining of blood vessels

27

Simple cubodial Epithelial

kidney tubules, some glands and ducts

28

Simple Columnar epithelial

lining of stomach, small and large intestines

29

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

trachea, bronchi

30

Areolar connective tissue

around many organs, under epithelium mucous membrane

31

Dense regular connective tissue

tendons and ligaments

32

compact bone

shaft of long bones