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1

Primary elements

C, H, O, N

2

life is based on what element?

life is carbon based
carbon is the backbone of life

3

What is the most common element in the body?

more than 99% of atoms in the body are H
O is next

4

Secondary elements

P- phosphorus
S- sulfur

5

Ions/electrolytes

Na+
K+
Cl-
Ca2+

6

Trace elements

things like coblat, iron magnesium

7

Covalent bonds

strongest
combination of 2 or more atoms that share electrons
polar and non polar
ex: C-C

8

Ionic bonds

weaker than covalent
2 ions one + and one -
Na+---Cl-

9

Hydrogen bonds

Weaker than ionic and covalent
many together can be strong
-OH---OH

10

Hydrophobic interactions

weakest
-CH---HC

11

Bonds in water

Has polar covalent bonds between H and O
hydrogen bonds are formed between adjacent water molecules

12

Characteristics in water

water is a polar solvent - dissolves polar and charged molecules
water is the physiological medium - ICF and ECF are aqueous solutions
water is a reactant / product of hydrolysis and dehyration reactions

13

surface tension

attractive force between water molecules that cause water to form spherical droplets
caused by hydrogen bonding

14

anions vs cations

anions negatively charged ions
cations positively charged ions

15

polar

electrons shared unequally
dissolves in water
ex: O-H
O-C
N-H
N-C
H2O
NH3
CO2

16

non polar

insoluble in water
electrons are shared equally
ex: C-C (same thing bound together)
C-H
O=O

17

Organic molecules

carbon based molecules
4 types of covalent bonds - single bonds, double bonds, chains, and rings
structural "backbone" of biological molecules

18

Hydrocarbons

contain only C-H and C-C bonds

19

Hydroxyl

-OH
alcohols and sugars
Polar

20

carboxyl

-C=O
|
OH

organic acids
Polar, acidic, negatively charged
-COOH -> H+ + -COO-

21

Amino

-NH2
amines
polar, basic, positively charged
-NH2 + H+ --> -NH3+

22

Phosphate

organic phosphates
acidic, negatively charged

23

acids and base are...

compounds that exchange H+ ions in aqueous solutions

24

acid

H+ donor / released H+ into solution (proton donor)
Increase H+ and decreases pH

25

Base

H+ acceptor/removes H+ from solution (proton acceptor)
decreases H+ increases pH

26

Buffer

mixture of molecules that minimizes changes in [H+]
stabilizes pH
physiological buffers: bicarbonate, phosphate, proteins

27

pH scale

each # on the pH scale is a 10 fold difference
inverse relationship= higher the pH lower the [H+]

28

acidity of a solution

depends on amount of free H+
more free H+ the more acidic the solution

29

Buffered solution means

less change in pH