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NCLEX-RN (1) Fundamentals > Lab Values > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lab Values Deck (46)
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1
Q

Will normal lab values be provided on the Next Generation NCLEX exam?

A

Yes!

It is still a good idea to memorize the values of common labs.

2
Q

Lab value:

sodium

A

135 - 145 (mEq/L)

Critical: < 120 or > 160

3
Q

Lab value:

chloride

A

98 - 106 (mEq/L)

4
Q

Lab value:

potassium

A

3.5 - 5 (mmol/L)

Critical: < 3 or > 6

5
Q

Lab value:

magnesium

A

1.6 - 2.6 (mg/dL)

6
Q

Lab value:

calcium

A

8.5 - 10.5 (mg/dL)

7
Q

Lab value:

phosphorus

A

2.5 - 4.5 (mg/dL)

8
Q

Lab value:

WBC

(white blood cell)

A

5,000 - 10,000 (mcL)

Critical value: < 2,000 or > 40,000

9
Q

Lab value:

RBC: male and female

(red blood cell)

A
  • male: 4.7 - 6.6 (mcL)
  • female: 4.2 - 5.4 (mcL)
10
Q

Lab value:

Hgb: male, female, pregnant

(hemoglobin)

A
  • male: 14-18 (g/dL)
  • female: 12-16 (g/dL)
  • pregnant: >11 (g/dL)
11
Q

Lab value:

Hct: male, female, pregnant

(hematocrit)

A
  • male: 42 - 52%
  • female: 37 - 47%
  • pregnant: >33%
12
Q

Lab value:

platelets

A

150,000 - 400,000 (mcL)

Critical value: < 50,000 or > 1 million

13
Q

Lab value:

blood urea nitrogen

(BUN)

A

10 - 20 (mg/dL)

critical BUN: > 100

14
Q

Lab value:

creatinine

A

0.6 - 1.2 (mg/dL)

Critical: > 4

15
Q

Lab value:

glomerular filtration rate

(GFR)

A

> 90 (mL/min)

Average is 125 (mL/min)

16
Q

Lab value:

bilirubin in newborn

A
  • < 14 (mg/dL), newborn is managed at home with sunlight and increased feedings
  • > 14 (mg/dL), newborn is hospitalized
  • > 20 (mg/dL), is considered toxic

Adult bilirubin is about 1-2, newborn bilirubin is always a bit high around 10.

17
Q

Lab value:

  • (ALT) alanine aminotransferase
  • (AST) aspartate aminotransferase
  • (ALP) alkaline phosphatase
A
  • ALT: 4 - 36 (U/L)
  • AST: 0 - 25 (U/L)
  • ALP: 20 - 140 (U/L)

  • A mild elevation will be 2 - 3 times higher than normal
  • A severe elevation can be in the hundreds or thousands

18
Q

Lab value:

total cholesterol

A

< 200 (mg/dL)

19
Q

Lab value:

HDL: male, female

(High-density lipoproteins)

A
  • male: >40 (1.0 mmol/L)
  • female: >50 (1.3 mmol/L)

>60 (1.6 mmol/L) is ideal

20
Q

Lab value:

LDL

(Low-density lipoproteins)

A

< 100 (mg/dL)

21
Q

Lab value:

protein

A

6 - 8.3 (g/dL)

22
Q

Lab value:

ammonia

A

15 - 56 (µmol/L)

23
Q

Lab value:

albumin

A

3.5 - 5 (g/dL)

24
Q

Lab value:

PT normal/control

(prothrombin time)

A

PT normal/control: 11 - 12.5 seconds

25
Q

Lab value:

PT therapeutic

(prothrombin time)

A

1.5 - 2 times the control/normal value

Example:

  • 11 x 1.5 = 16.5
  • 12.5 x 2 = 25
  • Therapeutic level: 16.5 - 25 seconds

Labs are different and may have a different control. If there is not a control number indicated use 11 - 12.5. The higher the number the less risk that a blood clot will form. But it also puts the client at risk for bleeding.

26
Q

Lab value:

INR: normal, therapeutic

(international normalized ratio)

A
  • normal: 0.8 - 1.1
  • therapeutic: 2 - 3

Therapeutic: the higher the number the less risk that a blood clot will form. But it also puts the client at risk for bleeding.

27
Q

Lab value:

aPTT: (normal/control)

(activated partial thromboplastin time)

A

a PTT normal/control: 25 - 35 seconds

28
Q

Lab value:

aPTT: therapeutic

(activated partial thromboplastin time)

A

aPTT: 1.5 - 2.5 times the control/normal value

Example:

  • 25 x 1.5 = 37.5 seconds
  • 35 x 2.5 = 87.5 seconds
  • Therapeutic level: 37.5 - 87.5 seconds

Labs are different and may have a different control. Some labs use 20-30 and some use 30-40. If there is not a control number indicated use 25-35 seconds. The higher the number the less risk that a blood clot will form. ​But it also puts the client at risk for bleeding.

29
Q

Lab value:

amylase and lipase

A

0 - 160 (U/L)

30
Q

Lab value:

HbA1c

(glycated hemoglobin)

A
  • non-diabetic: 4 - 5.7%
  • good diabetes control: < 7%
  • poor diabetes control: > 9%
31
Q

Lab value:

Blood sugar: fasting, random, critical

A
  • fasting: 70 - 110 mg/dL (3.9 - 6.1 mmol/L) - no food for at least 8 hours before the test
  • random: ≤ 200 mg/dL (≤ 11.1 mmol/L)- may have eaten before the test
  • critical: < 50 or > 400 mg/dL (< 2.8 - > 22.2 mmol/L)

.

32
Q

Lab value:

BNP

(B-type natriuretic peptide or brain natriuretic peptide)

A

0 - 100 (pg/mL)

33
Q

Lab value:

troponin

A

0 - 0.04 (ng/mL)

34
Q

Lab value:

CK

(creatine kinase)

A

22 - 198 (U/L)

35
Q

Lab value:

uric acid

A

2.4 - 7 (mg/dL)

36
Q

Therapeutic drug level:

digoxin

A

1 - 2 (ng/mL)

2 or greater is considered toxicity

37
Q

Therapeutic drug level:

lithium

A

0.6 - 1.2 (mmol/L)

2 or greater is considered toxicity.

38
Q

Therapeutic drug level:

phenytoin

A

10 - 20 (mcg/mL)

Greater than 20 is considered toxic.

39
Q

What is the normal respiration rate for an adult?

A

12 - 20 breaths per minute

40
Q

What is a normal pulse oximetry/oxygen (O2) saturation?

A

95% - 100%

41
Q

What is a normal heart rate for an adult?

A
  • 60 - 100 beats per minute
  • strong and regular
42
Q

What is a normal blood pressure (BP)?

A

90/60 to 120/80 (mmHg)

  • systolic is the first number
  • diastolic is the second number

43
Q

What is a normal body temperature?

A

96.8° - 100.4° F

(36° - 38° C)

44
Q

What labs are included in a CBC (complete blood count)?

A
  • Red blood cell count
  • Hemoglobin
  • Hematocrit
  • White blod cell count
45
Q

What labs are included in a BMP (basic metabolic panel)?

A
  • glucose
  • calcium
  • potassium
  • bicarbonate
  • chloride
  • BUN
  • creatinine
46
Q

What labs are included in a CMP (complete metabolic panel)?

A
  • glucose
  • calcium
  • potassium
  • bicarbonate
  • chloride
  • BUN
  • creatinine
  • albumin
  • total protein
  • ALP and AST
  • bilirum