Flashcards in lecture 1 Deck (32):
what is gross anatomy?
study of structures that can be examined visually without a microscope
what is anatomy?
study of the structures of the body and the relationships among these structures
What types of approaches can be used in the study of gross anatomy?
we can use a regional or systems based approach in addition to incorporating imaging like x-rays and MRI's.
what is microscopic anatomy?(like histology and cytology)
study of structures at the microscopic level
what is developmental anatomy (embryology)
study of structures from fertilization to birth
what is the anatomical position?
standing erect, head level, eyes facing forward, feet on flat surface facing forward, arms at side, palms facing forward
with reference to the penis, why is it crucial to have it in the anatomically correct position?
the penis has a dorsal vein and so it must be erect not flaccid to promote proper anatomical standards. Because if it is in the flaccid position the dorsal vein is "not dorsal"
what comprises the body cavities?
the dorsal/ventral cavity and the ventral/anterior cavity.
what comprises the dorsal/ventral cavity?
cranial cavity housing the brain and the spinal/vertebral cavity containing the spinal cord
what comprises the ventral/anterior cavity?
thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity
how many cavities does the thoracic cavity contain?
3, the pleural, pericardial and the mediasternal cavity
what is the difference between examining the abdominopelvis from a regional vs quadrant standpoint.
abdominoquadrant is examined left upper and so on whereas abdominopelvic regions are examined from right hypochondriac region to left iliac region
what is radiography
single barrage of X-rays passed through anatomical structures producing a 2-dimensional image on X-ray film >> relatively inexpensive and simple to perform
how should the image appear on paper if the x-rays pass through dense objects like the bones?
appear white on paper
how should the image appear on paper if the x-rays pass through hollow structures like the lungs?
appear black on paper
how should the image appear on paper if the x-rays are partially absorbed by intermediate density structures like skin, muscle, adipose tissue?
appear as varying shades of gray
what are some basic radiography modifications?
low doses for use in examining soft tissues like a mammography and bone density. Also contrast radiography which uses contrast medium to visualize hollow or fluid filled structures
name some examples of contrast radiography
mammography/angiography, intravenous urography, and barium contrast x-ray
what is computed tomography?
x-ray tube rotates around the patient and computer collects the results with resulting sections displayed on a video monitor
when CT scanning used?
used in bone injuries, lung and chest imaging, detecting cancer; widely used in ER settings because of its 5 minute availability; can also use oral and intravenous contrasts sometimes
what is an MRI?
utilizes a high energy magnetic field to cause hydrogen atoms in water to emit a radio frequency signal >> provides high definition imaging of soft tissues
when is MRI imaging used?Drawbacks?
widely used to image nervous tissue, muscle, tendon, ligaments and cancers; lacks ionizing radiation and cannot be used in patients with any type of metal device or implant.
what is ultrasound scanning?
high frequency sound waves reflect off body tissues to produce a video on a monitor >> all from a hand-held device (slide 14) “future stethoscope of the 21st century”
what can we use ultrasound scanning for?pros/cons?
completely safe and painless, considered the stethoscope of the 21st century. Common uses for fetal development, used to observe size, location and actions of organs or pooling of blood; also the doppler ultrasound is used to determine the flow rate through a blood vessel
what is a PET scan?
looking for physiological activity and produces gamma radiation (carcinogenic) and done when needed
what is the benefit of using a PET scan?
it demonstrates where the positron is being used within the body in which brighter colors indicate regions of greater activity and has very common uses in the physiology of the brain and heart
what is radio nucleotide scanning?
radioactive substance introduced intravenously and gamma cameras detect location of accumulation >> fed into a computer to produce an image (slide 16). Radioactive iodine looking at the thyroid gland, heart and kidneys
what is endoscopy?
the use of an endoscope which is a flexible instrument with a lighted end + lens and used to visually examine body organs or cavities
what are some examples in which endoscopy would be used?
colonoscopy, laparoscopy, arthroscopy
what is colonoscopy?
used to examine lining of the colon
what is laproscopy?
used to examine organs within the abdominal cavity