Lecture 1 - Introductory Bacteriology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Introductory Bacteriology Deck (20):
1

Which is bigger; prokaryotes or eukaryotes?

Eukaryotes

2

Why is being a small cell advantageous?

Large surface-to-volume ratio: better nutrient exchange. Allows for quicker evolution

3

What is generation time?

The amount of time required for a a population to double

4

3 shapes of bacteria

Coccus, Rod, Spirillium

5

What colour is gram +

Purple

6

What colour is gram -

pink

7

Mycobacteria use what kind of staining for identification?

Acid Fast

8

Difference between gram +/-

Gram + have a thick cell wall (peptidoglycan) while - has small cell wall. Gram - has 2 layers, an outer and an inner which contains the periplasmic space

9

What is the importance of the bacterial cell wall

For structural purposes and preventing osmosis

10

What makes the cell wall so rigid?

The glycol backbone. Alternating G/M and the formation of peptide cross-linkage

11

What are the 3 components of a lipopolysaccharide

Lipid A, Core polysaccharide and O-specific polysaccharide

12

What is the O-antigen

Most important part of the lipopolysaccharide. It is used as a recognition site for the immune system. Bacteria will change this to avoid recognition.

13

Where is the periplasm space located?

Only in G-, between outer and inner membrane

14

What is a nucleoid?

Not a nucleus. Has no membrane and only contains 1 circular haploid chromosome

15

What is the importance of a plasmid?

These are like mini chromosomes, they replicate on their own and are NOT required by bacteria. They are simply advantageous to the bacterium. They can also be transferred to other bacteria.

16

Flagella

Little motors for moving, they tumble and run

17

Pili

Made of protein and allows for attachment

18

Capsules

Attahces to host protects from immunity. Also forms biofilms!

19

Endospores

Differentiated from parents and are really resistant to harsh conditions

20

Exotoxins

Secreted from bacteria and include hemolysis, toxins from the host, extracellular enzymes and super antigens