Lecture 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (38):
1

RBC surfaces are marked by

glycoproteins and glycolipids

2

Based on 2 glycolipid isoantigens called

A and B found on the surface of RBCs

3

Plasma contains

isoantibodies or agglutinins to the A or B antigens not found in your blood

4

Antigen was discovered in blood of

Rhesus monkey

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People with Rh agglutinogens on RBC surface are

Rh+.

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Antibodies develop only in

Rh- blood type & only with exposure to the antigen

7

Transfusion reaction upon 2nd exposure to the antigen results in

hemolysis of the RBCs in the donated blood

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People with type AB blood called

universal recipients

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People with type O blood cell called

universal donors

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Hemostasis:

Stoppage of bleeding in a quick & localized fashion when blood vessels are damaged

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Hemostasis prevents ...

hemorrhage

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Methods utilized for hemostasis:

vascular spasm
platelet plug formation
blood clotting

13

Platelets store a lot of chemicals in

granules needed for platelet plug formation

14

Platelet Plug Formation -Steps in the process

(1) platelet adhesion
(2) platelet release reaction (3) platelet aggregation

15

Platelet Adhesion:

Platelets stick to exposed collagen underlying damaged endothelial cells

16

Platelet Release Reaction:

1.Platelets activated by adhesion
2.Extend projections to make contact with each other
3.Release thromboxane & activate other platelets
4.Thromboxane is also a vasoconstrictor decreasing blood flow

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Platelet Aggregation- Platelet plug:

Activated platelets stick together and activate new platelets to form a mass

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Plug reinforced by

fibrin threads formed during clotting process

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Three Pathways of Clotting:

1. Extrinsic Pathway
2. Intrinsic Pathway
3. Final Common Pathway

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Extrinsic Pathway: damaged tissue leak

tissue factor into bloodstream

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Extrinsic Pathway: Prothrombinase forms in

seconds

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Extrinsic Pathway: in the presence of Ca+2 clotting factor X combines with

V to form prothrombinase

23

Intrinsic Pathway: Activation occurs when...

endothemlium is damaged
platelets are damaged --> release phosolipids

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Intrinsic Pathway: Requires...

several minutes for reaction to occur

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Intrinsic Pathway: Substances involved

Ca+2 and clotting factors XII, X and V

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Final Common Pathway involves:

Prothrombinase and Ca+2
Thrombin

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Final pathway: Prothrombinase and Ca+2

prothrombin to thrombin

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Final pathway: Thrombin

presence of Ca+2 --> converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin threads

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Role of Vitamin K in Clotting:

1. Normal clotting requires adequate vitamin K
2. 4 clotting factors by hepatocytes (II, VII, IX, X)
3. Produced by bacteria in large intestine

30

Intravascular Clotting:

Thrombosis
Embolus

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Thrombosis:

clot (thrombus) forming in an unbroken blood vessel

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Embolus:

clot, air bubble or fat from broken bone in the blood

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Hemophilia:

Inherited deficiency of clotting factors

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3 Hemophilias:

A, B, C

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Hemophilia A:

lacks factor VIII (males only)
-most common

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Hemophilia B:

lacks factor IX (males only)

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Hemophilia C

(males & females)
-less severe because alternate clotting activator exists

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Treatment of Hemophilia:

Treatment is transfusions of fresh plasma or concentrates of the missing clotting factor