Lecture 20 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 20 Deck (30):
1

Absorption of Nutrients by the Stomach:

Water (cold)
Electrolytes
Drugs
Fat content

2

Gastric mucosal cells contain

alcohol dehydrogenase that converts some alcohol to acetaldehyde-----more of this enzyme found in males than females

3

Females have less

total body fluid

4

Release of chyme is regulated by

neural and hormonal reflexes

5

Distention & stomach contents increase

secretion of gastrin hormone & vagal nerve impulses

6

Enterogastric reflex regulates

amount released into intestines

7

Vomiting (emesis):

Forceful expulsion of contents of stomach & duodenum through the mouth

8

Cause of vomiting:

-irritation or distension of stomach
-unpleasant sights, general anesthesia, dizziness & certain drugs

9

vomiting: Sensory input from medulla cause

stomach contraction & complete sphincter relaxation

10

Vomiting: Contents of stomach squeeze

between abdominal muscles and diaphragm and forced through open mouth

11

Vomiting: Serious because

loss of acidic gastric juice can lead to alkalosis

12

Composition and Functions of Pancreatic Juice:

-pH of 7.1 to 8.2
-Contains water, enzymes & sodium bicarbonate
-Digestive enzymes

13

Digestive enzymes of Pancreatic Juice:

-pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, proteases
-ribonuclease----to digest nucleic acids
-deoxyribonuclease

14

Secretin

acidity in intestine causes increased sodium bicarbonate release

15

GIP

fatty acids & sugar causes increased insulin release

16

CCK

fats and proteins cause increased digestive enzyme release

17

Histology of the Liver:

1. Hepatocytes arranged in lobules
2. Sinusoids in between hepatocytes are blood-filled spaces
3. Kupffer cells phagocytize microbes & foreign matter

18

Blood Supply to the Liver:

1. Hepatic portal vein
2. Hepatic artery from branch off the aorta

19

Hepatic portal vein:

nutrient rich blood from stomach, spleen & intestines

20

Bile Production:

1. One quart of bile/day is secreted by the liver
-yellow-green in color & pH 7.6 to 8.6

21

Components of bile:

-water & cholesterol
-bile salts = Na & K salts of bile acids
-bile pigments (bilirubin)

22

Bilirubin:

globin
heme

23

globin =

a reuseable protein

24

heme =

broken down into iron and bilirubin

25

Regulation of bile production:

1. parasympathetic impulses along vagus stimulates
2. Fatty acids and amino acids in chyme stimulate CCK
3. CCK causes contraction in gallbladder
4. Secretion enhances flow of bile

26

Liver Functions--Carbohydrate Metabolism:

-Turn proteins into glucose
-Turn triglycerides into glucose
-Turn excess glucose into glycogen & store in the liver
-Turn glycogen back into glucose as needed

27

Liver Functions --Lipid Metabolism:

-Synthesize cholesterol
-Synthesize lipoproteins
-Stores some fat
-Breaks down some fatty acids

28

Liver Functions--Protein Metabolism:

-Deamination
-Converts NH3 into urea
-Synthesize plasma proteins
-Convert one amino acid into another

29

Deamination =

removes NH2 from amino acids so can use what is left as energy source

30

Other Liver Functions:

-detoxifies
-removes waste
-releases bile
-stores fat/ vitamins
-phagocytizes
-activates vit D