Lecture 14 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology II > Lecture 14 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 14 Deck (56):
1

Cells continually use

O2 & release CO2

2

Respiratory system designed for

gas exchange

3

Cardiovascular system transports

gases in blood

4

Failure of either system =

rapid cell death from O2 starvat

5

Anatomy for Respiratory:

Nose
Pharynx
Larynx = voicebox
Trachea = windpipe
Bronchi = airways
Lungs

6

Pharynx =

throat

7

Larynx =

voicebox

8

Trachea =

windpipe

9

Bronchi =

airways

10

Locations of infections:

-upper respiratory tract is above vocal cords
-lower respiratory tract is below vocal cords

11

1. Nose: External Nasal Structures:

-Skin, nasal bones, & cartilage lined with mucous membrane
-Openings called external nares or nostrils

12

Presence of adipose tissue =

insulation

13

Nose: Internal Structures:

Roof
Internal nares (choanae)
Nasal septum
Bony swelling or conchase

14

Roof is made up of

ethmoid and floor is hard palate

15

Internal nares (choanae) are

openings to pharynx

16

Nasal septum is composed of

bone & cartilage

17

Bony swelling or conchae on

lateral walls

18

Functions of Nose:

Olfactory epithelium
Pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar
Paranasal sinuses

19

Olfactory epithelium

for sense of smell

20

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with

Goblet cells lines nasal cavity:
-warms air
-moistens air and traps dust
-cilia moves across mucous

21

Paranasal sinuses open into

nasal cavity:
lighten skull and resonate voice

22

2. Pharynx:

-Muscular tube
-Extends
-3 Distinct regions

23

Pharynx: Muscular tube:

(5 inch long) hanging from skull
-skeletal muscle (voluntary) & mucous membrane

24

Pharynx: Extends from

internal nares to cricoid cartilage

25

Pharynx: Functions:

-passageway for food and air
-resonating chamber for speech production
-tonsil (lymphatic tissue) in the walls protects entryway into body

26

Pharynx: 3 regions:

nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx

27

Nasopharynx:

-From choanae to soft palate(openings of auditory)
-Passageway for air only (pseudo-stratified ciliated columnar epithelium)

28

Oropharynx:

-does not have ciliated cells
-From soft palate to epiglottis
-Common passageway for food & air, water
(stratifued squamous epithelium)

29

Laryngopharynx:

-Extends from epiglottis to cricoid cartilage
-Common passageway for food & air & ends as esophagus inferiorly
(stratified squamous epithelium)

30

3. Cartilages of the Larynx:

1. Thyroid cartilage
2. Epiglottis
3. Cricoid cartilage
4. Pair of arytenoid cartilages

31

Thyroid cartilage forms

Adam’s apple - testosterone dependent

32

Epiglottis--

-leaf-shaped piece of elastic cartilage
-bends to cover glottis

33

Cricoid cartilage---

ring of cartilage attached to top of trachea

34

Pair of arytenoid cartilages sit upon

cricoid
-responsible for own movement
-partially buried in vocal folds

35

Larynx:

1. Cartilage & connective tissue tube
2. Anterior to C4 to C6
3. Constructed of 3 single & 3 paired cartilages

36

Vocal Cords:

True and False

37

False vocal cords:(ventricular folds) found above

vocal folds (true vocal cords)
-structure

38

True vocal cords attach to

arytenoid cartilages
-sounds

39

The Structures of Voice Production:True vocal cord contains both

skeletal muscle and an elastic ligament (vocal ligament)

40

When 10 intrinsic muscles of the larynx contract =

move cartilages & stretch vocal cord tight

41

When air is pushed past tight ligament =

sound is produced

42

The tighter the ligament

the higher the pitch

43

To increase volume of sound =

push air harder

44

4. Trachea

-Size is 5 in long & 1in diameter
-Extends from larynx to T5 anterior to the esophagus and then splits into bronchi
-Layers

45

4 Layers of Trachea:

1. mucosa
2. submucosa
3. hyaline cartilage
4. adventitia

46

mucosa =

pseudostratified columnar with cilia & goblet

47

submucosa =

loose connective tissue & seromucous glands

48

hyaline cartilage =

16 to 20 incomplete rings
-open side facing esophagus contains trachealis m. (smooth)

49

adventitia =

binds it to other organs

50

Trachea and Bronchial Tree

Full extent of airways is visible starting at the larynx and trachea

51

Branching sequence:

1. Pimary bronchi
2. Secondary bronchu
3. Tertiary bronchi
4. Bronchioles
5. Terminal bronchioles

52

Branching sequence provide:

-airway to each lobe of lungs
-from larynx down = airway exchange is purpose

53

Histology of the Trachea:

-Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
-Hyaline cartilage as C-shaped structure closed by trachealis muscle
-expansion of esophagus

54

Airway Epithelium:

Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells produce moving mucus.

55

Intubation:

-Reestablishing flow
-passing a tube from mouth or nose through larynx and trachea

56

Tracheostomy:

-Reestablishing flow
-incision in trachea below cricoid cartilage if larynx is obstructed