Lecture 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 Deck (36):
1

Cells of the body are serviced by 2 fluids

blood
composed of plasma and a variety of cells
interstitial fluid
bathes the cells of the body

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Fluids of the Body:

-Cells
-Nutrients and oxygen diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid & then into the cells
-Wastes move in the reverse direction

3

Hematology

is study of blood and blood disorders

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Functions of Blood

Transportation
Regulation
Protection

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Transportation of?

O2, CO2, metabolic wastes, nutrients, heat & hormones

6

Regulation:

-helps regulate pH through buffers
-helps regulate body temperature
--coolant properties of water
--vasodilatation of surface vessels dump heat
-helps regulate water content of cells by interactions with dissolved ions and proteins

7

Protection from?

disease & loss of blood

8

Physical Characteristics of Blood

-Thicker (more viscous) than water and flows more slowly than water
-Temperature of 100.4 degrees F
-pH 7.4 (7.35-7.45)
-8 % of total body weight
-Blood volume:
5 to 6 liters in average male
4 to 5 liters in average female
hormonal negative feedback systems maintain constant blood volume and osmotic pressure

9

Hematocrit

55% plasma
45% cells
99% RBCs

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Blood Plasma

Over 90% water
7% plasma proteins
created in liver
confined to bloodstream: albumin, globulins, fibronogen
2 % other substances

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albumin:

maintain blood osmotic pressure

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glubulins (immunoglobulins)

antibodies bind to foreignsubstances called antigens
form antigen-antibody complexes

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fibrinogen is used for

clotting

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2% other substances =

electrolytes, nutrients, hormones, gases, waste products

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Formed Elements of Blood

RBC
WBC
Platelets

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WBC (leukocytes)

granular, agranular

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granular leukocytes =

neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils

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agranular leukocytes =

lymphocytes = T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells
monocytes

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Percentage of blood occupied by cells

female normal range
38 - 46% (average of 42%)
male normal range
40 - 54% (average of 46%)
testosterone

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Anemia

not enough RBCs or not enough hemoglobin

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Polycythemia

too many RBCs (over 65%)
dehydration, tissue hypoxia, blood doping in athletes

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Most blood cells types need to be continually replaced

die within hours, days or weeks
process of blood cells formation is hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis

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In the embryo

occurs in yolk sac, liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes & red bone marrow

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In adult

occurs only in red marrow of flat bones like sternum, ribs, skull & pelvis and ends of long bones

25

Red Blood Cells or Erythrocytes:

-Contain oxygen-carrying protein hemoglobin that gives blood its red color:
1/3 of cell’s weight is hemoglobin
-Biconcave disk 8 microns in diameter:
increased surface area/volume ratio
flexible shape for narrow passages
no nucleus or other organelles
no cell division or mitochondrial ATP formation

26

Normal RBC count

male 5.4 million/drop ---- female 4.8 million/drop
new RBCs enter circulation at 2 million/second

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Hemoglobin:

Globin protein consisting of 4 polypeptide chains
One heme pigment attached to each polypeptide chain

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each heme contains

an iron ion (Fe+2) that can combine reversibly with one oxygen molecule (Fe = ferric + O = oxygen)

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Transport of O2, CO2 and Nitric Oxide:

Each hemoglobin molecule can carry 4 oxygen molecules from lungs to tissue cells
Hemoglobin transports 23% of total CO2 waste from tissue cells to lungs for release
Hemoglobin transports nitric oxide & super nitric oxide helping to regulate blood pressure
iron ions pick up nitric oxide (NO) & super nitric oxide (SNO)& transport it to & from the lungs

30

Fate of Components of Heme: Iron =

-transported in blood attached to transferrin protein
-stored in liver, muscle or spleen
--attached to ferritin or hemosiderin protein
-in bone marrow being used for hemoglobin synthesis

31

Fate of Components of Heme: Biliverdin (green) converted to bilirubin (yellow)

bilirubin secreted by liver into bile:
-converted to urobilinogen then stercobilin (brown pigment in feces) by bacteria of large intestine
-if reabsorbed from intestines into blood is converted to a yellow pigment, urobilin and excreted in urine

32

Tissue hypoxia (cells not getting enough O2)

high altitude since air has less O2
anemia
RBC production falls below RBC destruction
circulatory problems

33

Kidney response to hypoxia

release erythropoietin
speeds up development of proerythroblasts into reticulocytes

34

Platelet (Thrombocyte) Anatomy:

Disc-shaped, 2 - 4 micron cell fragment with no nucleus
Normal platelet count is 150,000-400,000/drop of blood
Other blood cell counts
5 million red & 5-10,000 white blood cells

35

Platelets--Life History:

Short life span (5 to 9 days in bloodstream)
formed in bone marrow
few days in circulating blood
aged ones removed by fixed macrophages in liver and spleen

36

Complete Blood Count:

Total RBC, WBC & platelet counts; differential WBC; hematocrit and hemoglobin measurements
Normal hemoglobin range
infants have 14 to 20 g/100mL of blood
adult females have 12 to 16 g/100mL of blood
adult males have 13.5 to 18g/100mL of blood