Lecture 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16 Deck (30):
1

Eupnea =

normal quiet breathing

2

Apnea =

temporary cessation of breathing

3

Dyspnea =

difficult or labored breathing

4

Diaphragmatic breathing =

descent of diaphragm causes stomach to bulge during inspiration

5

Costal breathing =

just rib activity involved

6

Tidal volume =

amount air moved during quiet breathing

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MVR=

minute ventilation is amount of air moved in a minute

8

Reserve volumes ----

amount you can breathe either in or out above that amount of tidal volume

9

Residual volume =

1200 mL permanently trapped air in system

10

Vital capacity & total lung capacity are

sums of the other volumes

11

Air =

21% O2, 79% N2 and .04% CO2

12

Alveolar air =

14% O2, 79% N2 and 5.2% CO2

13

Expired air =

16% O2, 79% N2 and 4.5% CO2

14

Henry’s Law:

-Quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid depends upon the amount of gas present and its solubility coefficient
-Breathing O2 under pressure dissolves more O2 in blood

15

Hyperbaric Oxygenation:

Use of pressure to dissolve more O2 in the blood
-anaerobic bacteria die in the presence of O2

16

External Respiration:

1. Gases diffuse from areas of high partial pressure to areas of low partial pressure
2.Exchange of gas between air & blood
3. Deoxygenated blood becomes saturated
4. Compare gas movements in pulmonary capillaries to tissue capillaries

17

Rate of Diffusion of Gases:

-Depends upon partial pressure of gases in air
-Large surface area of our alveoli
-Diffusion distance is very small
-Solubility & molecular weight of gases

18

O2 smaller molecule diffuses

somewhat faster

19

CO2 dissolves

24X more easily in water so net outward diffusion of CO2 is much faster

20

Internal Respiration:

1. Exchange of gases between blood & tissues
2. Conversion of oxygenated blood into deoxygenated
3. Observe diffusion of O2 inward
4. Observe diffusion of CO2 outward

21

acidosis =

more exhalation (volume and frequency) can help return to homeostasis. This is hyperventilation.

22

alkalosis =

less exhalation (volume and frequency) can help return to homeostasis (as can ‘rebreathing’ with a bag). This is hypoventilation.

23

Oxygen Transport in the Blood:

1. Oxyhemoglobin contains 98.5% chemically combined oxygen and hemoglobin
2. Does not dissolve easily in water
3. Only the dissolved O2 can diffuse into tissues

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Blood is almost fully saturated at

pO2 of 60mm

25

Between 40 & 20 mm Hg,

large amounts of O2 are released as in areas of need like contracting muscle

26

=
Bohr effect

As acidity increases, O2 affinity for Hb decreases

27

Acidity & Oxygen Affinity for Hb:

1. Bohr effect
2. H+ binds to hemoglobin & alters it
3. O2 left behind in needy tissues

28

Temperature & Oxygen Release:

1. As temperature increases, more O2 is released
2. Metabolic activity & heat
3. More biphosphoglycerate (BPG), more O2 released

29

Carbon Dioxide Transport:

100 ml of blood carries 55 ml of CO2

30

CO2 Is carried by the blood in 3 ways:

1. dissolved in plasma
2. combined with the globin part of Hb molecule forming carbaminohemoglobin
3. as part of bicarbonate ion