Lecture 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10 Deck (21):
1

autotroph

Depends on environmental compounds

2

Calvin cycle

incorporates CO2 from the atmosphere into an organic molecule and uses energy from the light reaction to reduce the new carbon piece to sugar

3

carbon fixation

The initial incorporation of
carbon from CO2 into an organic compound
by an autotrophic organism (a plant, another
photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic
prokaryote).

4

carotenoids

An accessory
pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts
of plants and in some prokaryotes.
By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll
cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum
of colors that can drive photosynthesis.

5

chlorophyll a

A photosynthetic pigment that
participates directly in the light reactions,
which convert solar energy to chemical
energy.

6

chlorophyll

A green pigment located
in membranes within the chloroplasts
of plants and algae and in the membranes of
certain prokaryotes. Chlorophyll a participates
directly in the light reactions, which
convert solar energy to chemical energy.

7

cyclic electron flow

allows the chloroplast to generate enough surplus ATP to satisfy the higher demand for ATP in the Calvin cycle

8

electromagnetic spectrum

The entire range of electromagnetic radiation

9

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P)

The actual sugar product of the Calvin cycle is not glucose, but a three-carbon sugar, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P).

10

heterotroph

live on organic compounds produced by other organisms.
? These organisms are the consumers of the biosphere.
? The most obvious type of heterotrophs feed on plants and other animals.
? Other heterotrophs decompose and feed on dead organisms and on organic litter, like feces and fallen leaves.
? Almost all heterotrophs are completely dependent on photoautotrophs for food and for oxygen, a byproduct of photosynthesis.

11

light reactions

convert solar energy to chemical energy

12

NADP+

Carrier Molecule

13

noncyclic electron flow

? predominant route
? produces both ATP and NADPH
? in roughly equal quantities.
? Oxygen is a byproduct.
? However, the Calvin cycle consumes more ATP than NADPH

14

photon

Light Particle

15

photosynthesis

Process in which plant cells convert light to energy

16

photosystem

2 parts of photosynthesis; II is first, I is second

17

reaction center

Where an electron is excited to a higher level of energy
? This electron is captured by a primary electron acceptor
? An enzyme fills the electron hole with another electron
? The excited electron is used in an electron transport chain to supply energy to make ATP.
? Each photosystem functions in the chloroplast as a light-harvesting unit.

18

stoma

Leaf pores. Opens and closes

19

stroma

two membranes around a central aqueous space

20

visible light

The most important segment for life is the narrow band between 380 to 750 nm, visible light.

21

wavelength

distance between peaks of a wave