Flashcards in Lecture 13 Deck (24):
The generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes (by budding, division of a single cell, of division of the entire organism into two or more parts). In most cases, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
A chromosome that is
not directly involved in determining sex; not
a sex chromosome.
The X-shaped, microscopically
visible region where crossing over has
occurred earlier in prophase I between homologous
nonsister chromatids. Chiasmata
become visible after synapsis ends, with the
two homologs remaining associated due to
sister chromatid cohesion.
The reciprocal exchange of genetic
material between nonsister chromatids
during prophase I of meiosis.
A cell containing two
sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited
from each parent.
The union of haploid gametes
to produce a diploid zygote.
A Section of DNA
Cell containing one set of chromosomes
The transmission of traits from one
generation to the next.
A pair of chromosomes of the same
length, centromere position, and staining
pattern that possess genes for the same
characters at corresponding loci. One homologous
chromosome is inherited from
the organism?s father, the other from the
mother. Also called homologs, or a homologous
A display of the
chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size
The generation-to-generation sequence
of stages in the reproductive history
of an organism.
place along the length of a chromosome
where a given gene is located.
A modified type of cell
division in sexually reproducing organisms
consisting of two rounds of cell division
but only one round of DNA replication. It
results in cells with half the number of chromosome
sets as the original cell.
The first division of a two-stage process
of cell division in sexually reproducing
organisms that results in cells with half the
number of chromosome sets as the original
The second division of a two-stage
process of cell division in sexually reproducing
organisms that results in cells with
half the number of chromosome sets as the
crossing over produces recombinant chromosomes which combine genes inherited from each parent
x and y chromosome. Determines gender
A type of reproduction
in which two parents give rise to offspring
that have unique combinations of genes inherited
from both parents via the gametes.
Any cell in a multicellular
organism except a sperm or egg or
A protein holds homologous chromosomes together tightly
Now they are called a tetrad
Differences between members of
the same species.