Lecture 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 12 Deck (35):
1

anaphase

The fourth stage of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell.

2

anchorage dependence

Cells will only multiply if they are anchored to something

3

benign tumor

non-harmful

4

binary fission

A method of asexual reproduction
by ?division in half.? In prokaryotes,
binary fission does not involve mitosis, but
in single-celled eukaryotes that undergo binary
fission, mitosis is part of the process.

5

cell cycle

An ordered sequence of events in
the life of a cell, from its origin in the division
of a parent cell until its own division
into two. The eukaryotic cell cycle is composed
of interphase (including G1, S, and G2
subphases) and M phase (including mitosis
and cytokinesis).

6

cell division

reproduction of cells

7

cell plate

A membrane-bounded, flattened
sac located at the midline of a dividing plant
cell, inside which the new cell wall forms
during cytokinesis.

8

centromere

In a duplicated
chromosome, the region on each sister
chromatid where they are most closely attached
to each other by proteins that bind to
specific DNA sequences; this close attachment
causes a constriction in the condensed
chromosome. (An uncondensed, unduplicated
chromosome has a single centromere,
identified by its DNA sequence.)

9

centrosome

A structure present
in the cytoplasm of animal cells that
functions as a microtubule-organizing center
and is important during cell division. A
centrosome has two centrioles.

10

chromatin

Loose DNA

11

cleavage

site of division.

12

cytokinesis

The division
of the cytoplasm to form two separate
daughter cells immediately after mitosis,
meiosis I, or meiosis II.

13

density?dependent inhibition

Cells will only multiply as much as they need to fill a space

14

G1 phase

The first gap, or growth phase, of
the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase
before DNA synthesis begins.

15

G2 phase

The second gap, or growth phase,
of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of
interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.

16

gamete

Sex Cell

17

genome

The genetic material of an
organism or virus; the complete complement
of an organism?s or virus?s genes along
with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.

18

interphase

The period in the cell cycle when
the cell is not dividing. During interphase,
cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes
and organelles are duplicated, and
cell size may increase. Interphase often accounts
for about 90% of the cell cycle.

19

kinetochore

Part of the sister chromatid that the mitotic spindle attaches to, seperating them.

20

M phase

The phase of the cell cycle
that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.

21

malignant tumor

Harmful Tumor

22

meiosis

Sex cell division

23

metaphase plate

An imaginary structure
located at a plane midway between the two
poles of a cell in metaphase on which the
centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes
are located.

24

metaphase

The third stage of mitosis, in
which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes,
attached to microtubules at their
kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase
plate.

25

mitosis

A process of nuclear
division in eukaryotic cells conventionally
divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase,
metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Mitosis conserves chromosome number by
allocating replicated chromosomes equally
to each of the daughter nuclei.

26

mitotic phase

M Phase

27

mitotic spindle

An assemblage of microtubules
and associated proteins that is
involved in the movement of chromosomes
during mitosis.

28

prometaphase

The second stage of mitosis,
in which the nuclear envelope fragments
and the spindle microtubules attach to the
kinetochores of the chromosomes.

29

prophase

The first stage of mitosis, in which
the chromatin condenses into discrete chromosomes
visible with a light microscope,
the mitotic spindle begins to form, and the
nucleolus disappears but the nucleus remains
intact.

30

S phase

The synthesis phase of the cell cycle;
the portion of interphase during which
DNA is replicated.

31

sister chromatids

Two copies of a duplicated
chromosome attached to each other by
proteins at the centromere and, sometimes,
along the arms. While joined, two sister
chromatids make up one chromosome.
Chromatids are eventually separated during
mitosis or meiosis II.

32

somatic cell

Any cell in a multicellular
organism except a sperm or egg or
their precursors.

33

telophase

The fifth and final stage of mitosis,
in which daughter nuclei are forming and
cytokinesis has typically begun.

34

transformation

The conversion of a
normal animal cell to a cancerous cell.

35

tumor

Growth of cancer cells