Lecture 10: Pediatric Perspective Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10: Pediatric Perspective Deck (34)
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1

How we do develop postural control?

through changes of body mass and strength, development of muscle synergies, sensory system, internal representations relative to perception to action, anticipatory or adaptive mechanism

2

What is reflex hierarchical theory?

postural control depends on reflexes and their integration

also increasing maturation of CNS

3

What is dynamic systems theory?

elements of postural control is determined by task and environment

4

What is the neuronal group selection theory?

our brain can select from a variety of actions and can chose best one for the given task (variation + variability)

5

What are two phases of variability?

1. primary- lots of variation in motor behavior, little adaptability

2. secondary- able to select best motor strategy for task due to active experience/trial and error

6

What is the job of righting reactions?

initiates movement vs gravity

7

What sense is responsible for labyrinthine RR?

vestibular (corrects body when not upright)

8

What sense is responsible for body on head and Landau RR?

somato sensory (prone position)

9

What is job of equilibrium reactions?

keeps COG within BOS

10

What is timeline for rolling in newborn?

prone to supine- 4 mo
supine to prone- 6-8 months
log roll (segmental)- 9 months

11

When is prone progression?

birth to 10-13 months

head lift - prone on elbows- quadruped- creeping

12

How do most US children perform supine to stand?

initially- roll to prone- quad- pull to stand

later- prone- quad- plantigrade-stand

13

When is static sitting achieved in an infant?

6-8 months, cephalocaudal

14

What are four stages of static sitting?

1. no control of large sway
2. attempts to initiate upright
3. partial control with large range body sway
4. functional control with minimal sway

15

When will reactive postural control become adult like?

starts at 7-8 months

adult- 7-10 years old

16

When are first signs of APA seen in newborn?

10-13 months gastrocs working as an internal pert. by 16-17 months these become more consistent

17

When will APA become adult like?

4-6 years old

18

When newborns first start balance what sense dominates?

visual but with practice they gain increased somatosensation

19

What 3 things are required for locomotion?

1. progression- with rhythmic stepping pattern

2. stability- strength and postural control

3. adaptation- to environmental changes

20

Newborns move arms in legs in womb so why can't they initially walk?

immature postural control system

21

What is early stepping behavior?

neonatal stepping, maximal support needed

controlled by central pattern generator, more of a reflex so happens below brainstem

22

Why does this disappear around 2 months?

dynamic systems theory: body build changes don't match strength requirements

23

How do newborns avoid obstacles or adapt to environment?

influenced by both APA and RPA, use vision to change patterns

24

What age is a new walker generally?

9-15 months

25

What are common characteristics of early stance phase?

PF at IC, flexed knee, absent push off

force generated by forward trunk lean

26

What are common characteristics of early aged swing phase?

decreased DF, increased HF, short phase due diminished SLS

27

What else is common in newborns walking?

high cadence, arms in high guard, wide step width

28

At age 2 what changes are appearing?

knee flexion wave, push off by end of year 2, reciprocal arm swing

29

What are changes in years 3-7?

increased SLS, velocity and step length

decreased cadence

30

Put in order of first to last as they appear: hop, run, skip, gallop?

1- run
2-3 hop or gallop
4- skip (longest SLS)