Lecture 10: Pediatric Perspective Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 10: Pediatric Perspective Deck (34)
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How we do develop postural control?

through changes of body mass and strength, development of muscle synergies, sensory system, internal representations relative to perception to action, anticipatory or adaptive mechanism


What is reflex hierarchical theory?

postural control depends on reflexes and their integration

also increasing maturation of CNS


What is dynamic systems theory?

elements of postural control is determined by task and environment


What is the neuronal group selection theory?

our brain can select from a variety of actions and can chose best one for the given task (variation + variability)


What are two phases of variability?

1. primary- lots of variation in motor behavior, little adaptability

2. secondary- able to select best motor strategy for task due to active experience/trial and error


What is the job of righting reactions?

initiates movement vs gravity


What sense is responsible for labyrinthine RR?

vestibular (corrects body when not upright)


What sense is responsible for body on head and Landau RR?

somato sensory (prone position)


What is job of equilibrium reactions?

keeps COG within BOS


What is timeline for rolling in newborn?

prone to supine- 4 mo
supine to prone- 6-8 months
log roll (segmental)- 9 months


When is prone progression?

birth to 10-13 months

head lift - prone on elbows- quadruped- creeping


How do most US children perform supine to stand?

initially- roll to prone- quad- pull to stand

later- prone- quad- plantigrade-stand


When is static sitting achieved in an infant?

6-8 months, cephalocaudal


What are four stages of static sitting?

1. no control of large sway
2. attempts to initiate upright
3. partial control with large range body sway
4. functional control with minimal sway


When will reactive postural control become adult like?

starts at 7-8 months

adult- 7-10 years old


When are first signs of APA seen in newborn?

10-13 months gastrocs working as an internal pert. by 16-17 months these become more consistent


When will APA become adult like?

4-6 years old


When newborns first start balance what sense dominates?

visual but with practice they gain increased somatosensation


What 3 things are required for locomotion?

1. progression- with rhythmic stepping pattern

2. stability- strength and postural control

3. adaptation- to environmental changes


Newborns move arms in legs in womb so why can't they initially walk?

immature postural control system


What is early stepping behavior?

neonatal stepping, maximal support needed

controlled by central pattern generator, more of a reflex so happens below brainstem


Why does this disappear around 2 months?

dynamic systems theory: body build changes don't match strength requirements


How do newborns avoid obstacles or adapt to environment?

influenced by both APA and RPA, use vision to change patterns


What age is a new walker generally?

9-15 months


What are common characteristics of early stance phase?

PF at IC, flexed knee, absent push off

force generated by forward trunk lean


What are common characteristics of early aged swing phase?

decreased DF, increased HF, short phase due diminished SLS


What else is common in newborns walking?

high cadence, arms in high guard, wide step width


At age 2 what changes are appearing?

knee flexion wave, push off by end of year 2, reciprocal arm swing


What are changes in years 3-7?

increased SLS, velocity and step length

decreased cadence


Put in order of first to last as they appear: hop, run, skip, gallop?

1- run
2-3 hop or gallop
4- skip (longest SLS)