Lecture 11: Neuroplasticity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11: Neuroplasticity Deck (30)
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1

What is neuroplasticity?

ability of nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections or learning

2

What is synaptic plasticity?

the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.

3

What is Hebbian learning?

neurons that fire together, wire together

4

What is dendritic spine formation?

where receptors are housed and are designed this way to increase surface area

5

What is pruning?

this is a healthy process and happens as we age

6

Does neurogenesis occur in post natal humans?

only occurs in hippocampus and olfactory bulb, you are born with all your neurons

7

What does happen all the time and can increase as you age?

synpatic formation, creations of new neuron connections not new neurons

main step in neuroplastic changes

8

What is the process of cell death?

CNS can be damaged by a variety of things which initiates a cascade of celluar changes

1. potassium exits, Na, Cl, and Ca enters which allows water to follow Na into cell
2. glutamate and aspartate are released causing enzyme disturbances and free radical release

9

What is CNS shock?

in acute stages there is an altered level of consciousness, hypotonia, motor and sensory changes, cog defecits, decline in function

absence or slowing of neuron firing

10

What are three zones of CNS damage?

1. ischemic zone
2. Penumbra
3. Diaschisis

11

What is the ischemic zone?

the area of injury that is not getting blood, major area affected

12

What is penumbra?

adjacent to ischemic zone, chance of cell death if nothing is done

13

What is diaschisis?

area that is losing function due to loss of connection/input from ischemic zone

14

What is medical management of CNS injury?

restore blood flow, tissue in penumbra supplied by collateral circulation

some evidence supports that PT can increase rate and degree of recovery

15

What is the PT main job dealing with neuroplasticity?

we need to promote the brains ability to reorganize in a functional way

but too early can be harmful

16

When is the time table for an acute vs chronic injury?

1-6 months is acute, first 1-2 months is a steep learning curve, then slower in months 3-6

after 6 considered chronic- slower but still possible for recovery

17

What factors influence neuroplasticity?

age, genetics, nature of lesion, co morbidities, previous level of function , environment, TRAINING

18

What are two methods of measuring neuroplasticity?

diffusion MRI, fMRI

19

What are the goals of neurorehab?

foster recovery via neuroplasticity

regain lost function

20

What does neurorehab require from the patient?

active participation in goal directed active movement

must be motivating, challenging, age appropriate, REPETITION

21

What is use it or lose it principle?

neural circuits not actively engaged in task performance for an extended period of time will break down

22

What is learned non-use?

is a learning phenomenon whereby movement is suppressed initially due to adverse reactions and failure of any activity attempted with the affected limb, which then results in the suppression of behavior.

23

What is an example of use it and improve it?

constraint induced movement therapy

24

What is repetition without repetition?

repetition at first is crucial however if not varied over time then learning will stop and task will become unmotivated

25

Why is timing important in rehab?

too soon may be harmful but too long of delay may allow for compensatory patterns to develop

26

What is salience?

emotions modulate the strength of memory consolidation or increased dopamine which strengthens neuroplasticity

27

What is transference?

ability of plasticity within one set of neural circuits to promote concurrent or subsequent plasticity, can prime adjacent areas for learning

28

What is interference?

training skills to similar and too close together may block the learning of that skill

29

What must design interventions consist of?

goal directed, challenging, repetitive, active, variable and linked to function

30

What is recovery is not possible?

help develop compensatory strategies