Flashcards in Lecture 4: Coordination and Vestibular System Deck (50)
What is main function of cerebellum?
coordinates and regulates posture, movement and balance
What is main function of brainstem?
integrates and sorts sensory information
What is sequence to perform coordinated movement or balance?
1. sensory input (vestib, visual, proprio)
2. integration of input (brainstem, cerebellum)
3. motor output
What is coordination?
smooth, accurate and controlled movement which involves sequence, timing and force production
What does normal coordination look like?
promixal fixation for distal control, postural control, easy and and off and fluid
What is intralimb coordination?
occuring with one limb
What is interlimb coordination?
integrated performance of two or more limbs
What is visual motor coordination?
ability to integrate both visual and motor abilities
aka hand eye coordination
What are key brain structures used for coordination?
motor cortex, descending motor tracts, basal ganglia, cerebellum
What does motor cortex and descending pyramidal pathways do?
for trunk and proximal control, anticipatory control, initiation
What does basal ganglia do?
regulate initiation and gross intentional movements
regulate complex planning and execution
How much of CNS neurons does cerebellum contain?
What cerebellar nuceli are responsible for motor execution?
fastigal and interposed
What cerebellar nuclei are responsible for motor planning?
What cerebellar nuclei are responsible for balance and eye movements?
What is the vermis for?
What are main cerebellar functions?
coordinate range, velocity and strength of muscle contractions to produce steady volitional movements
What are other cerebellar functions?
equilibrium, muscle tone regulation, eye head coordination, coordination for muscle of speech
comparator- corrects errors of movement
What type of system is cerebellar functions?
What is ataxia?
cerebellar pathology that results in disordered movement, difficulty initiating volitional movement
errors in rate, rhytym and timing of muscle
What side does ataxia occur on?
ipsilateral side of lesion
What is etiology of ataxia?
congenital, acquired (strokes, tumors, trauma)
What is most common sign of cerebellar lesion?
ataxic gait, decreased arm swing, uneven step length, increased BOS, high movement variability
What is dysdiadochokinesia?
decreased rapid alternating movements, antagonistic muscle firing over powers agonist
flipping hand back and forth
What is dysmetria?
deficit in reaching a target, overshooting a target when pointing
What is dyssynergia?
breaking down movement into unsmooth motion
What is an intention tremor?
oscillation of limb with volitional movement, most pronounced with end of movement
What is role of vestibular system?
critical in control of posture, where are we in relation to gravity, proprioception, sensing and perceiving motion, gaze stability
What are two components of peripheral apparatus?
bony labrinth and membranous labyrinth