Lecture 3: BSF Exam- Muscle Tone Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3: BSF Exam- Muscle Tone Deck (47)
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1

Why is ROM important for a neuro exam?

will affect ACOM and affect activity

2

What is muscle tone?

resistance of muscle to passive elongation or stretch

neurological ready state of muscle to act

3

Why is muscle tone important?

supports posture, provides reflexive, energy efficient base for movement

4

What is muscle tone influenced by?

intrinsic mechanical or elastic properties of muscle fibers and connective tissue

and spinal reflex muscle contractions

5

What are two main types of muscle tone?

hypertonia- increase tone due to UMNL, hard resistance to passive stretch

hypotonia- decreased tone due to sometimes LMNL

6

Where does an UMNL occur?

injury or lesion to brain, brainstem, descending motor or pyramidal tract

7

Why does hypertonia happen?

increased excitability of alpha motor neurons (increased depolarization)

enhanced excitatory synaptic input (ms spindle or GTO)

8

What are two types of hypertonia?

spasticity and rigidity

9

What is spasticity?

an involuntary, velocity dependent, increased resistance to passive elongation

quick stretch results in increased resistance

10

What type of lesions usually cause spasticity?

pyramidal tract lesions in diseases like CP, CVA, MS, TBI

11

What is the clasp knife phenomenon?

strong resistance to initial passive movement followed by release of resistance

12

What is clonus?

cyclical, spasmodic alternating muscle contraction in response to sustained stretch

13

Why is spasticity a negative thing?

may lead to contracture, deformity, functional limitations, skin break down, weakness in both agonist and antagonist

14

Why might spasticity be helpful?

passive postural suport, may contribute to function in presence of reduced motor control

15

What factors will make spasticity worse?

infection, pressure sores, DVT, fatigue, bladder distention

16

What is PT management?

modalities, stretching, splinting, casting

but only temporary effect

17

What is rigidity?

increased resistance through range and not velocity dependent usually in both agonist and antagonist

18

What will rigidity look like in basal ganglia lesion?

cogwheel or leadpipe

19

What about brainstem lesions?

decerebrate or decorticate

20

What is decorticate?

reflects loss of corticol control (lesion above red nucleus) with flexed UE and extended LE

21

What is decerebrate?

reflects loss of inhibitory control of cortex and basal ganglia (below red nucleus) with full extension of all limbs and trunk

22

What is dystonia?

involuntary painful muscle contraction or spasm causing repetitive twisting motions, abnormal posture

23

What causes dystonia?

unknown currently, includes genetics, acquired, idiopathic

24

What is hypotonia associated with?

LMNL- anterior horn or peripheral nerve damage

UMNL- spinal shock or cerebellar lesion

chromosmal abnormalities- downs, muscle disease- muscular dystrophy

25

What else is associated with hypotonia?

reduced deep tendon reflexes

26

What does hypotonia result in?

poor posture, weakness, decreased function, pain

27

What will hypertonia look like?

increased muscle bulk, well defined and will feel taught and hard

28

What will hypo look like?

less definition, mushy feel

29

How to examine muscle tone?

lie pt in supine and perform PROM, don't hold muscle belly, make sure pt is relax and note ROM and end feels

30

How do you check for spasticity?

stretch the limb at full motion at a fast speed, unidirectional