Flashcards in Lecture 12: Memory and Learning Deck (31)
How do we evaluate learning?
in terms of memory, if you can perform a skill after not practicing it for awhile then it is in your memory and you have learned it
How do we directly use memory?
deliberate attempt to recollect past experiences for the purposes of facilitating current information process
ex: names, facts, events
How do we indirectly use memory?
no need for deliberate recollection
ex. motor skill
What are two different systems for memory?
explicit/declarative= facts and ideas
implicit= habits and movement
What is STSS?
short term sensory share, last 1-2 seconds from sense like kinesthesia, proprioception, vision etc.
very large capacity only filters what is of interest
What is STM?
short term memory, events that just occurred but can usually only hold about 7 new items +/- 2
What is working memory?
part of STM where effortful conscious processing takes place
What are examples of working memory?
reading comprehension, name and face recall, maintaining attention with distractions, computations
What is long term memory?
memory that does not occupy your current attention, must be recalled or recognized
What are three steps of memory processing?
3. retrieval recall
How does consolidation occur?
stabilize memory trace after acquisition
1st process- synaptic plasticity (hours after) using Hebb rule
2nd process- system consolidation (weeks to years)
What is long term potentiation?
high frequency activity leads to long lasting impact
What are metabolic requirements for consolidation?
CREB protein, glucose, food and adrenaline
ex: don't study when hungry
What is the main neurophysiological requirement for memory?
What are ways to improve explicit memory?
reactivate and rehearse
make connections to material with story, mnemonics, flashcards, test yourself
but must take breaks and avoid drugs and alcohol
Where do short term explicit memories occur?
medial temporal lobe
Where does LTM occur?
1. hippocampus- encoding, consolidation and retrieval
2. amygdala- emotional memories
How are the two sides of hippocampus split up?
L side- verbal info
R side- visual and other sensory info
Why is HM important?
removed his hippocampus to stop seizures but he was unable to make new explicit memories but could have implicit memories
Where does implicit memory occur involving skills and habits?
1. basal ganglia (caudate nucleus)- storage selection and retrieval
2. cerebellum- learning, error detection and timing
3. putamen- storage
4. cerebral cortex- sequence learning, response selection
Where does conditioning of implicit memory occur?
amygdala- fear based memories, memory of emotional reaction
What happens when we age?
weaken of synapses, reduce white matter (axons), hippocampal atrophy effects more explicit than implicit memory
What are two reasons for forgetting STM?
1. trace decay- memories leave a chemical change in nervous system but decay occurs by erasing this trace
2. displacement theory- when STM is full new info kicks out old info
Why do we forget LTM?
1. impaired consolidation- problems with hippocampus, neurons
2. retrieval failure- stored but not accessible
3. weakened synaptic connections- decline theory when memory is not exercised
4. interference- activation of new network over older one
What are examples of anatomical lesions?
medial temporal lobe, thalamus/hypothalamus, basal forebrain, diffuse (MS)
What are examples of non- anatomical lesions?
seizures, concussion, ischemia, hypoxia, alzhiemers,
What type of memory is usually associated with retrograde amnesia?
typically explicit memories before injury
What type of memory is usually associated with anterograde amnesia?
LTM as it is hard to consolidate things after injury
What diseases usually affect explicit memory?
stroke, parkinsons, alzhiemers