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Flashcards in Lecture 14 Thrush Deck (27):
1

Describe importance of cytokines

important mediators of cell to cell communication
generally act locally (paracrine and autocrine)
also capable of endocrine
used to regulate immune response

2

Nomenclature cytokines

lymphokines – cytokines produced by lymphocytes (IL-2, IL-4, etc)
monokines – cytokines produced by monocytes/macrophages (IL-1, TNFa, IL-6)
interleukins – cytokines produced by WBCs and act on WBCs [IL-1 through IL-37 (more?)]
chemokines – low molecular weight molecules important in the inflammatory response; chemotaxis (IL-8, RANTES, etc)

3

Redundant function of cytokines

different cytokines do the same thing

4

Synergistic cytokines

different cytokines work together for a function (Ex: IL 4 and IL 5)

5

Antagonistic cytokines

block each other (ex: INF gamma blocks IL4)

6

Which cytokines are involved in Th1 subset and what type of reaction?

IL-2, IFN gamma, TNF beta
for CMI reaction

7

Which cytokines are involved in Th2 subset and what type of reaction?

IL-4, IL-5, IL-10
Humoral

8

What is Th0 subset dependent upon?

stimulation from APC (cytokines)

9

What stimulates Th1?

IL- 12 from macrophages

10

What stimulates Th2?

IL-4 from Th2

11

What inhibits Th1?

IL-10

12

What inhibits Th2?

INF gamma

13

Explain Leprosy and which subset is better for this?

. Given that leprosy is caused by an intracellular bacterium (Mycobacterium leprae), the Th1 response is generally the better response. Patients who mount a Th1 response show the tuberuloid form of the disease and they generally will survive the infection.

14

Th2 and leprosy

Individuals who mount the Th2 response, however, develop lepromatous leprosy and the bacteria spread throughout the body causing disseminated disease with a potentially fatal outcome.

15

What are the cytokine receptors made of?

most made up of 2 or more chains
cytokine specific unit
signal transducing unit

16

What is the signaling chain for IL 2 family

gamma

17

Higher affinity binding by?

2 or 3 chains

18

What occurs after cell activation?

increased cytokine receptor expression

19

What increases in IL 2 family after activation

alpha and beta

20

Lack of gamma causes?

x linked SCID

21

How do microbes evade immune system?

they produce cytokines that can skew immune response
For example, knowing that the best response against viruses is a CMI response, some viruses can produce Th2 type cytokines that skew the response towards Th2 cells.

microbes can produce soluable receptors that keep cytokines from binding to the real receptor

22

How do cytokines produce Bacterial Septic Shock

through LPS (causes high levels of cytokine release)
specifically INF gamma and IL-1 which cause systemic inflammation

23

How do cytokines produce toxic shock disease?

through superantigens which cause and overproduction of cytokines

24

Lymphoid and myeloid cancer and cytokines

overproduction of IL 2

25

Cytokines and Graft survival

produces antibodies that inhbit IL-2 from binding to recpetor IL-2R which stops production of th1 that is important in graft rejection

26

LAK cells

Take out NK cells activate them outside body (IL-2)

27

cancer and cytokines therapy

tumor cells suppress immune response and cytokines can activate immune response and destroy tumor cells

activating the immune response has also been used to help fight disease. Many cancers end up suppressing the immune response. By activating the immune system, it has been shown that for some cancers, an effective recognition and destruction of tumor cells has been seen.