Lecture 16 Thrush Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 16 Thrush Deck (17):
1

Central Tolerance

self-reactive cells are destroyed in the primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow or thymus)

2

Peripheral Tolerance

where self-reactive cells that accidentally are suppressed

3

what circumstances can induce tolerance

high doses of antigen
persistence of antigen in host
i.v. or oral introduction
absence of adjuvants
low levels (or lack) of co-stimulator molecules

4

what happens if tolerance fails

autoimmunity is formed

5

Function of t regs

to inhbit immune response of self reactive cells

6

What are T regs?

CD4 +, CD25 + and t cells

7

Which gene helps to stimulate the t regs? what happens if it is mutated?

Foxp3; autoimmunity

8

What causes autoimmunity?

B cells or T cells
failure of central or peripheral tolerance
apoptosis (lack of Fas)
some MHC (HLA-B27; HLA-DQ6)

9

What causes autoimmunity?

sequestered antigens that body doesnt recognize
altered self infections

10

Why do women have more autoimmunity than men?

more Ab
more CD4 t cells

11

Hashimoto's

due to autoantibodies and Th1 cells
inflammation/ cytotoxicity
damage to thyroid gland
genetic component
middle aged japanese women
also environmental

12

Autoimune (pernicious) Anemia

autoantibodies
antibodies to intrinsic factor (clumping)
recognized by phagocytic cells t be gobbled up
individual can not produce vit B12

13

Diabetes

due to CTL attack on islet beta cells
Abs can play a role

14

M. Gravis

antibodies block acetylchoilne receptors

15

SLE lupus

primarily in women
20-40 years of age
ANA antibodies against nuclear components
systemic (butterfly rash)
immune complexes form

16

Multiple Sclerosis

T cells on myelin sheaths
highest incidents- living more northern
autoreactive cells and vitamin D

17

Rheumatoid Arthritis

women 40-60
HLA- DR4
anibodies
IgM reactive to fc of IgG
symmetry on both sides of body