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Flashcards in Lecture 15 Thrush Deck (19):
1

Difference between effector cells and naive cells

Naive: require CD:28- B7 for activation because it doesnt react wih TCR cells as well; CD45RA; low cell adhesion molecules (CD2 and LFA-1)

Effector cells: don't require CD28:B7 for activation; high cell adhesion and use CD45RO

2

CD4 T cells and subsets

Th (helper) cells produce cytokines to regulate the immune response (Th1 and Th2)
Tdth (delayed type hypersensitive) cells produce cytokines to stimulate an inflammatory response (Th1)
Tregs - regulatory/suppressive T cells; autoimmunity
Th17 - role in inflammation and autoimmunity
Th9 - promotes survival of Tregs
Th22 - helps control commensal bacteria, anti-inflammatory

3

CD8 t cells subsets

Tc (cytotoxic) cells produce cytokines that kill target cells
Ts (suppressor) cells produce cytokines to turn off the immune response (?)

4

CTLs: cell-mediated cytotoxic activities of the immune system and their role in host defense

important in eliminating altered self cells ( virally infected, tumor, and foreign graft)

best at destroying intracellular microbes

are CD8+ T cells that recognize their antigen in association with the MHC class I molecules.

5

How do CTL-P become activated to become CTL?

TCR : Ag/MHC class I interaction (with CD8)
CD28 : B7
IL2R interaction with IL-2 (from Th1 cell)

6

Which effector molecules do the CTLs produce

perforin: pore forming
granzymes: apoptosis and produces DNAses
Fas (on target cell) and FasL (on CTL): apoptosis

7

Binding of Fas and TNF alpha causes?

direct killing of tumor cells

8

NK: cell-mediated cytotoxic activities of the immune system and their role in host defense

No specific antigen recognition
Active before CTLS
Produces cytokines that can increase macrophages activity

produces perforin and granu.

9

How do NK recognize target?

recgnize altered self cells
(viruses, tumors)

10

What are the 2 NK receptors

KAR: activation
KIR: inhibtion

11

What can serve as an inhibitory signal for NK?

MHC class 1

12

What can bind to KAR?

cellular stress proteins, including MICA and MICB (are expressed by infected cells to help in actvating NK)

13

NKT: cell-mediated cytotoxic activities of the immune system and their role in host defense

hybrid between T cells and NK cells
no memory cell
innate immunity
produces IFNg and IL-4
recognize lipids when presented with CD1 molecules

14

What type of TCRS do NKT cells have?

invariant; very limited diversity

15

ADCC cell-mediated cytotoxic activities of the immune system and their role in host defense

antibodies

16

where does the ADCC antibody and antigen bind?

Fc region

17

which cells express FcR

Nk cells, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils,

18

how do ADCC cause cell death?

by releasing granules
can release TNF which can relases perforins and gran.

19

What can stimulate ADCC?

IgE