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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (41):
1

Is there a simple definition for stuttering?

No, there are many different definitions used for stuttering.

2

What is the definition of fluency?

The effortless, automatic, and uninterrupted expression of information via speech.

3

How did Starkweather divide up the idea of fluency?

(2)

1. Linguistic fluency

2. Speech (or "motoric") fluency

4

What is the definition of disfluency?

The effortful, non-automatic, or interrupted expression of information via speech.

5

What are the two ways that disfluency is characterized?

Atypical

Typical

6

What are examples of atypical dysfluencies?

(3)

part-word and monosyllabic whole-word repetitions (3 or more)

Prolongations - holding out a sound

Blocks, tense pauses - complete or partial sensation of sound of airflow

7

What are examples of typical dysfluencies?

(4)

Polysyllabic whole-word and phrase repetitions

Revision - change what you are saying

Interjections

Incomplete phrases

8

What disfluencies are associated with stuttering?

(2)

atypical

typical

9

Are people who stutter the only population that has dysfluencies?

All speakers are disfluent at times

10

How has stuttering been defined according to Johnson?

by their overt behaviors

11

What are the different ways that stuttering is measured? (3)

Frequency

Duration

Listener perceptions of severity (1-10 scale)

12

Is stuttering only the observed behaviors?

No, it extends beyond the easily observed behaviors

13

How can the speech of PWS be divided according to Adams + Runyan? (3)

Fluency

Perceptually overt stuttering

Tenuous fluency

14

Are the fluent times experienced by PWS the same as regular people fluency?

No, according to research

15

What are the ways that PWS are different than regular people? (7)

1. Neurological -
2. Autonomic (e.g., galvanic skin response)
3. Respiratory - aberrant breathing patterns
4. Phonatory - voice onset time
5. Myographic - electromyologify
6. Articulatory
7. Acoustic - format transitions, PWS have longer formant transitions

16

What are the non-speech symptoms of PWS?

(3)

Overt

Vocal changes

Flushing, sweating, etc.

17

What are three examples of the overt symptoms of PWS?

Associated movements (i.e., head bobbing, jerking their heads, waving their arms)

Vocal changes

Flushing, sweating, etc.

18

What are the examples given for the covert symptoms of PWS?

(5)

Autonomic response

Cardiovascular phenomena

Tremors

Biochemical Changes

Abnormal cortical activity

19

Why do PWS have associated behaviors?

(2)

These are all in an attempt to get through a block

Provides other sources of feedback

20

In regards to the iceberg theory, where are the overt symptoms of stuttering?

The tip of the iceberg

21

In regards to the iceberg theory, where are the majority of the problems for a PWS?

They are the part of the iceberg that is under the surface

22

In regards to the iceberg theory, what emotions/thing are considered to be under the surface?

(10)

Frustration

Anxiety

Shame

Guilt

Fear

Isolation

Anger

Denial

Hopelessness

Embarrassment

23

What is the conspiracy of silence (Wendell Johnson)?

(2)

If you don't talk about it then it represents that should never be talked about

This compounds the problem because it makes stutterers fill like they have to hide their stuttering

24

People stutter because they are nervous, true or false?

False

25

People who stutter are shy and self-conscious, true or false?

False

26

People who stutter are less intelligent or capable , true or false?

False

27

Stuttering is caused by emotional trauma, true or false?

False

28

Stuttering is caused by bad parenting, true or false?

False

29

Stuttering is just a habit that people can break if they want to, true or false?

False

30

Children who stutter are imitating a stuttering parent or relative, true or false?

False

31

Forcing a left-handed child to become right-handed causes stuttering, true or false?

False

32

Identifying or labeling a child as a stutterer results in chronic stuttering, true or false?

False

33

What makes stuttering difficult to define?

So many variables and things that are hard to measure

34

Why is it important to have a definition of stuttering?

A definition is needed because we as clinicians are expected to be able to explain what is happening

35

When defining stuttering, what exactly are we defining according to Yairi and Seery?

They suggest that definitions have taken two forms (event and disorder)

36

What is an important thing to do when trying to find a definition of stuttering in regards to providing therapy?

Ask the speaker how they would define it

37

What is primary/core/alpha behaviors?

stuttered behaviors that we cover in the beginning of this section (part-word repetitions, blocks, prolongations)

38

What has been wrong with all the neurological research that has been done for stuttering?

All the research studies have focused on comparing the fluent moments for a PWS to the fluency of a regular person.

39

What is the percentage range of children who stutter that go through spontaneous recovery?

75 - 90%

40

What is the gold standard for providing stuttering therapy to children in preschool?

Lidcomb program

41

In regards to finding the effectiveness of stuttering therapy, what is the problem with determining the cause of improvement?

We don't know if the treatment actually worked or if the child has gone through spontaneous recovery.