Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (41):
Is there a simple definition for stuttering?
No, there are many different definitions used for stuttering.
What is the definition of fluency?
The effortless, automatic, and uninterrupted expression of information via speech.
How did Starkweather divide up the idea of fluency?
1. Linguistic fluency
2. Speech (or "motoric") fluency
What is the definition of disfluency?
The effortful, non-automatic, or interrupted expression of information via speech.
What are the two ways that disfluency is characterized?
What are examples of atypical dysfluencies?
part-word and monosyllabic whole-word repetitions (3 or more)
Prolongations - holding out a sound
Blocks, tense pauses - complete or partial sensation of sound of airflow
What are examples of typical dysfluencies?
Polysyllabic whole-word and phrase repetitions
Revision - change what you are saying
What disfluencies are associated with stuttering?
Are people who stutter the only population that has dysfluencies?
All speakers are disfluent at times
How has stuttering been defined according to Johnson?
by their overt behaviors
What are the different ways that stuttering is measured? (3)
Listener perceptions of severity (1-10 scale)
Is stuttering only the observed behaviors?
No, it extends beyond the easily observed behaviors
How can the speech of PWS be divided according to Adams + Runyan? (3)
Perceptually overt stuttering
Are the fluent times experienced by PWS the same as regular people fluency?
No, according to research
What are the ways that PWS are different than regular people? (7)
1. Neurological -
2. Autonomic (e.g., galvanic skin response)
3. Respiratory - aberrant breathing patterns
4. Phonatory - voice onset time
5. Myographic - electromyologify
7. Acoustic - format transitions, PWS have longer formant transitions
What are the non-speech symptoms of PWS?
Flushing, sweating, etc.
What are three examples of the overt symptoms of PWS?
Associated movements (i.e., head bobbing, jerking their heads, waving their arms)
Flushing, sweating, etc.
What are the examples given for the covert symptoms of PWS?
Abnormal cortical activity
Why do PWS have associated behaviors?
These are all in an attempt to get through a block
Provides other sources of feedback
In regards to the iceberg theory, where are the overt symptoms of stuttering?
The tip of the iceberg
In regards to the iceberg theory, where are the majority of the problems for a PWS?
They are the part of the iceberg that is under the surface
In regards to the iceberg theory, what emotions/thing are considered to be under the surface?
What is the conspiracy of silence (Wendell Johnson)?
If you don't talk about it then it represents that should never be talked about
This compounds the problem because it makes stutterers fill like they have to hide their stuttering
People stutter because they are nervous, true or false?
People who stutter are shy and self-conscious, true or false?
People who stutter are less intelligent or capable , true or false?
Stuttering is caused by emotional trauma, true or false?
Stuttering is caused by bad parenting, true or false?
Stuttering is just a habit that people can break if they want to, true or false?
Children who stutter are imitating a stuttering parent or relative, true or false?
Forcing a left-handed child to become right-handed causes stuttering, true or false?
Identifying or labeling a child as a stutterer results in chronic stuttering, true or false?
What makes stuttering difficult to define?
So many variables and things that are hard to measure
Why is it important to have a definition of stuttering?
A definition is needed because we as clinicians are expected to be able to explain what is happening
When defining stuttering, what exactly are we defining according to Yairi and Seery?
They suggest that definitions have taken two forms (event and disorder)
What is an important thing to do when trying to find a definition of stuttering in regards to providing therapy?
Ask the speaker how they would define it
What is primary/core/alpha behaviors?
stuttered behaviors that we cover in the beginning of this section (part-word repetitions, blocks, prolongations)
What has been wrong with all the neurological research that has been done for stuttering?
All the research studies have focused on comparing the fluent moments for a PWS to the fluency of a regular person.
What is the percentage range of children who stutter that go through spontaneous recovery?
75 - 90%
What is the gold standard for providing stuttering therapy to children in preschool?