Flashcards in Lecture 5 Deck (76):
Can electroencephalography (EEG) spatially identify where stuttering is happening?
What does magnetoencephalography (MEG) use to measure neural activity?
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can ___________ recognize where things are happening in the brain.
Function magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can pinpoint with high accuracy where what happens?
where the neural activity is happening
What is the positron emission tomography (PET) used before?
It is used before the fMRI
How does the positron emission tomography (PET) work?
The subject is injected with a radioactive isotope and the isotope traveling pattern is recorded. This is how the brain activity is measured.
What does the Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measure?
An approach that uses skinny light to measure blood flow.
Could the Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) be combined with other tests to increase measurements?
Who came up with the central dominance theory?
In regards to the Handedness claims, has there been any evidence to support these claims?
No, there hasn't been any support. Interest for a long time but now we know that there isn't a higher rate of stuttering for people who are right and left handed.
Brain damage/aphasia studies showed that the ________ hemisphere was dominant for language (and speech?)
What type of stuff does the Broca's and Wernicke's areas do?
Broca's - production type stuff
Wernicke's - perceptual/receptive type stuff
Some research in stuttering shows that there is ________________ in the frontal lobe.
Research has shown that there are _____________ in gray and white matter volume in PWS.
Research also shows reduced white matter integrity in PWS. What three things have been found?
- Left dorsal stream (e.g., superior longitudinal fasciculus, arcuate fasciculus)
- Interhemispheric connects between sensorimotor regions
- Connections between sensorimotor regions are compromised (not as good connection between the two hemispheres)
What do a large number of EEG (and ERP) studies of PWS show suggest?
- Event related potential
- Studies suggest an atypical right hemispheric processing of speech
- Slowed and reduced electrophysiological responses
When performing EEG on PWS, differences were observed during both ______________ and _____________.
production and perception
What was found from the recent attempts to use EEG to differentiate persistence vs. recovery in PWS (e.g., phonological processing; Mohan and Webber, 2015)?
Phonological processing was found to be a factor in persistence vs. recovery
In regards to MEG, AWS exhibit differences in the sequencing of what?
brain region activation
In regards to MEG, AWS exhibit reduced neural activity prior to what?
In regards to MEG, PreKWS do not exhibit lateralization _____________ during picture naming.
Etchell et al. (2016) showed that CWS (aged 3 - 9) differentially respond to what?
In regards to PET, research shows that there is an absence of typical left ________________ in PWS.
In regards to PET on PWS, research shows an increased activation in what?
Anterior cingulate cortex
What three parts of the anterior cingulate cortex in PWS did research find?
- Implicated in selective attention
- covert articulation
What is anticipation?
Shift of attention towards that if you keep going something bad (stuttering) will happen
What is covert articulation?
Interesting in the context of stuttering not only because there are a bunch of studies that look at it.
In regards to PET on PWS, atypical activation patterns in what two things?
motor planning/execution and sensory feedback
In regards to fMRI on PWS, what are the signatures of stuttering?
- Over-activation of right IFG/frontal operculum
- Under-activation of auditory cortex
What happens during the over-activation of right IFG/frontal operculum in PWS?
Inferior frontal gyrus - when the left is kind of flattended (activity reduced), the right side increases activation
What does the under-activation of auditory cortex in PWS mean?
Must mean the auditory cortex is very important in speech production. People who stutter have difficulty with integrating sensory information, many focus on auditory but all sensory feedback are important. This is something that is very important to the stuttering picture.
In regards to fMRI on PWS, was there a over-activation or under-activation in the cerebellum?
Over-activation in cerebellum
What is the cerebellum for?
Area largely responsible for motor movements
What are the general findings from fMRI studies on PWS?
over-activation in motor areas
bilateral activation in language speech areas
under-activation in prefrontal area.
In regards to neural change following therapy, what did PET studies finding for stutterers after therapy?
The research found a reduced activation and left shift.
What did Neuman et al. (2005) find from an fMRI study on PWS?
increased activation in frontal and temporal areas
_______________ stuttering led to increased activation in auditory cortex.
_______________ stuttering led to similar activation patterns that PWS exhibit during overt speech.
In regards to trait vs. state in PWS, what does trait refer to?
Trait refer to traits that are always there in people who stutter
In regards to trait vs. state in PWS, what does state refer to?
refers to activity associated with stuttering.
In regards to trait vs. state on PWS, what did Belky et al. (2015) find? (3)
- Over-activation of right IFG/frontal operculum, only trait
- Under-activation of auditory cortex, both.
- Over-activation in cerebellum during state, under-activated re: trait
Why have neuroimaging results of PWS been extremely variable?
The researchers have found wildly diverse set of results which are due to a lot of reasons such as trait vs. state and different reasons for why people stutter.
Do the differences found by neuroimaging exist in all PWS?
Is it deniable that stuttering runs in families?
It is undeniable
What kind of studies have been used to gather genetic findings of PWS?
- Family histories
- Twin studies
- Family aggregation studies
- Biological studies
- Associated studies
In regards to genetic findings of PWS, what did Kang et al. (2010) find?
two gene mutations in common, GNPTAB and NAGPA, on chromosome 12 in 10% of PWS
In regards to genetic findings of PWS, what did Kraft (2010) find?
Genome - Wide associated study indicated 10 significant associated genes (associated with neural development)
Raza et al. (2015) follow-up to Kang et al; same mutations, _____% of PWS
Does having having the stuttering genes mean that you are going to stutter?
What is the fluent speech paradigm?
PWS exhibit a variety of speech-related differences during perceptually fluent speech
What are the components of the fluent speech paradigm?
- Listener perceptions
- Voice Onset time
- Formant transitions
- Subglottal air pressure
- Duration and rate
- Articulatory coordination/sequencing/variability
What is important to know about listener perceptions on PWS and PWNS?
able to distinguish between fluent speech of people do and don't stutter
What is important to know about voice onset time of PWS?
PWS have longer VOT than fluent people
What is important to know about formant transitions of PWS?
PWS have longer VOT than fluent people
What is important to know about subglottal air pressure of PWS?
build up too much air pressure behind vocal folds
What is important to know about duration and rate of PWS?
PWS have a slower speech rate
What are the differences between PWS and PWNS in regards to reaction time?
Voice initiation and termination - longer to turn voice on and off
What are the differences between PWS and PWNS in regards to Non-word repetition?
More variable when repeating non-sense words
What are the differences between PWS and PWNS in regards to oral kinesthesia?
less able to incorporate feedback to change movements
What are other physical findings in regards to differences between PWS and PWNS?
- Atypical relationships between respiratory and larnygeal movements, and atypical rib cage and abdominal activity
- Both increased/decreased heart rate
- Increased skin conductance prior to speech onset
Is all the evidence of differences between PWS and PWNS consistent?
No, there is conflicting evidence regarding most of these findings
Are PWS more maladjusted or neurotic than PWNS?
they are no more maladjusted
Is there a character structure or broad set of personality traits for PWS?
What kind of overlap is between PWS/PWNS?
Differences found in terms of anxiety, adjustment, etc. of PWS are the result of dealing with what?
a difficult problem
What are the components of temperament?
What is temperament?
A largely inherited, multi-faceted construct that characterizes a child's general disposition and range of moods
What is reactivity?
Excitability of the nervous system to behavioral responses or external stimuli
What is self-regulation?
The processes that inhibit or facilitate reactivity
What is activity?
Lethargic to hyperactive
What is emotionally?
emotional response to new or novel stimuli
Temperament ___________ the influence of the environment on the child
CWS are significantly more _________ and less able to regulation _________ and emotionally when compared to CWNS.
CWS are slower to _____________ and adapt to a new changes in behavior or environment when compared to CWNS.
Some CWS may be more ____________ than CWNS to change in the environment and their own behavior, and the environment's response to their behavior.