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Flashcards in Lecture 4 Deck (46):
1

What are the three parts of speech production?

Speech

Language

Cognition

2

What two things does speech make up?

phonetics and movements

3

What four things make up language?

Phonology

Semantics

Syntax

Morphology

4

What is cognition?

Some kind of internal representation of concepts, ideas, or experiences

5

What three things are necessary to achieve effective communication?

Speech

Language

Cognition

6

What is the neurological process of getting sound?

(6)

1. Nerve impulses
2. Muscle Contractions
3. Movements
4. Vocal cavity shapes
5. Air pressure changes
6. Sound

7

What is the first step in making sound?

You have a message that you want to present. At this point, nerve impulses move the muscle

8

What is the second step in making sound?

The muscle begin to contract. This muscle contraction are what causes the parts of the speech system to move

9

What is the third step in making sound?

These movements create the shapes in the vocal tract to produce the sounds that we want to make.

10

What is the fourth step in making sound?

Then there are air pressure changes throughout the vocal tract during this process.

11

What is the fifth step in making sound?

The tempered air exists the lips and this is when physical sound waves come out.

12

What makes up the central nervous system (CNS)?

Brain/spinal cord

13

What is the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

everything else

14

What is the purpose of efferent neurons?

Nerve impulses from CNS to periphery (motor functions)

15

What is the purpose of afferent neurons?

Nerve impulses from periphery to CNS (sensory functions)

16

Where in the brain does language and speech appear to emerge?

The left cerebral hemisphere

17

Do both hemispheres and subcortical structures work during speech and language?

yes

18

It is critically important to know that _______ hemispheres are involved in language production.

both

19

What is the most important thing for speech?

Air

20

What does airflow force to happen?

vocal fold vibration

21

Obstruction in airflow yields ___________ sound sources.

supraglottal

22

What is the definition for phonatory source (periodic)?

air pressure forces the vocal folds to vibrate

23

What is the definition of the supraglottal source (aperiodic)?

(2)

1. air pressure builds up behind vocal-tract closures and is released (stops)

2. Air is forced through narrow constrictions (fricatives)

24

What is aperiodic sound due to?

the structures inside the vocal tract

25

Lungs provide air supply for both ___________ and ___________.

periodic and aperiodic

26

Why is aperiodic sounds important?

gives speech its characteristic sound and helps us to differentiate between sounds

27

What can the region between the glottis and lips be modeled as?

a tube that is open at one end, closed at the other end

28

What starts to happen as the tube (vocal tract) is altered?

the air comes out of the open end is going to be different.

29

In regards to the source filter theory, larynx produces a _________ ________ sound; VT filters the _________ _________.

Complex periodic sound

Sound source

30

Speech recorded at the mouth shows both __________ and ________ characteristics.

sources and filter

31

What is the vocal tract in regards to vowels?

Articulation shape the VT, but VT is relatively open

32

What is the vocal tract in regards to consonants?

VT constrictors are (relatively speaking) more important

33

Speech requires the precise coordination of what three systems?

Respiration

Phonation

Articulation

34

In stuttering, ___________ and ______________ appear to be in tact; it's the coordination between phonation and these two systems (particularly articulation) that appears to be off.

Respiration

Articulation

35

In regards to blocks beginning at the start of phonation, what is the problem?

Problem with the transition from phonation to articulation

36

Phonetically, stuttering is associated with a difficulty transitioning between what?

the initial unit and following unit

37

In regards to the production-perception link, perception is ongoing during ___________, and therefore required for production

production

38

What is the closed loop system?

Doesn't just send production off but sends speech feedback into the system

39

Sensory information is perceived via what?

Feedback

40

What are the three types of sensory feedback?

1. External: auditory, tactile

2. Proprioceptive - the sense that you have of yourself/your body in space

3. Internal (no evidence but likely) - feedback from the CNS

41

A model of speech production should reflect a ____________, _______________ in which production and perception, speech, language, and cognition are dependent upon one another.

recurrent

closed-loop system

42

Why is it critical to know about normal speech production?

(3)

1. Changing speech behaviors - learn to do "more of the right things" (i.e., forward- moving speech)

2. Appreciate the online integration perception and production

3. Influence of cognitive activity on stuttering

43

In regards to the influences of cognitive activity on stuttering, what are the three influences?

Awareness

Anticipation

Emotions

44

Is the mechanism behind choral speech known?

No

45

Is choral speech really considered speech?

No, because it involves other parts of the brain.

46

Why does choral speech work?

When feedback is given to you in a small interval, that is going to give you enough feedback to keep going. It integrates the feedback in order to produce speech that is more so called speech.