Flashcards in Lecture 4 Deck (46):
What are the three parts of speech production?
What two things does speech make up?
phonetics and movements
What four things make up language?
What is cognition?
Some kind of internal representation of concepts, ideas, or experiences
What three things are necessary to achieve effective communication?
What is the neurological process of getting sound?
1. Nerve impulses
2. Muscle Contractions
4. Vocal cavity shapes
5. Air pressure changes
What is the first step in making sound?
You have a message that you want to present. At this point, nerve impulses move the muscle
What is the second step in making sound?
The muscle begin to contract. This muscle contraction are what causes the parts of the speech system to move
What is the third step in making sound?
These movements create the shapes in the vocal tract to produce the sounds that we want to make.
What is the fourth step in making sound?
Then there are air pressure changes throughout the vocal tract during this process.
What is the fifth step in making sound?
The tempered air exists the lips and this is when physical sound waves come out.
What makes up the central nervous system (CNS)?
What is the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
What is the purpose of efferent neurons?
Nerve impulses from CNS to periphery (motor functions)
What is the purpose of afferent neurons?
Nerve impulses from periphery to CNS (sensory functions)
Where in the brain does language and speech appear to emerge?
The left cerebral hemisphere
Do both hemispheres and subcortical structures work during speech and language?
It is critically important to know that _______ hemispheres are involved in language production.
What is the most important thing for speech?
What does airflow force to happen?
vocal fold vibration
Obstruction in airflow yields ___________ sound sources.
What is the definition for phonatory source (periodic)?
air pressure forces the vocal folds to vibrate
What is the definition of the supraglottal source (aperiodic)?
1. air pressure builds up behind vocal-tract closures and is released (stops)
2. Air is forced through narrow constrictions (fricatives)
What is aperiodic sound due to?
the structures inside the vocal tract
Lungs provide air supply for both ___________ and ___________.
periodic and aperiodic
Why is aperiodic sounds important?
gives speech its characteristic sound and helps us to differentiate between sounds
What can the region between the glottis and lips be modeled as?
a tube that is open at one end, closed at the other end
What starts to happen as the tube (vocal tract) is altered?
the air comes out of the open end is going to be different.
In regards to the source filter theory, larynx produces a _________ ________ sound; VT filters the _________ _________.
Complex periodic sound
Speech recorded at the mouth shows both __________ and ________ characteristics.
sources and filter
What is the vocal tract in regards to vowels?
Articulation shape the VT, but VT is relatively open
What is the vocal tract in regards to consonants?
VT constrictors are (relatively speaking) more important
Speech requires the precise coordination of what three systems?
In stuttering, ___________ and ______________ appear to be in tact; it's the coordination between phonation and these two systems (particularly articulation) that appears to be off.
In regards to blocks beginning at the start of phonation, what is the problem?
Problem with the transition from phonation to articulation
Phonetically, stuttering is associated with a difficulty transitioning between what?
the initial unit and following unit
In regards to the production-perception link, perception is ongoing during ___________, and therefore required for production
What is the closed loop system?
Doesn't just send production off but sends speech feedback into the system
Sensory information is perceived via what?
What are the three types of sensory feedback?
1. External: auditory, tactile
2. Proprioceptive - the sense that you have of yourself/your body in space
3. Internal (no evidence but likely) - feedback from the CNS
A model of speech production should reflect a ____________, _______________ in which production and perception, speech, language, and cognition are dependent upon one another.
Why is it critical to know about normal speech production?
1. Changing speech behaviors - learn to do "more of the right things" (i.e., forward- moving speech)
2. Appreciate the online integration perception and production
3. Influence of cognitive activity on stuttering
In regards to the influences of cognitive activity on stuttering, what are the three influences?
Is the mechanism behind choral speech known?
Is choral speech really considered speech?
No, because it involves other parts of the brain.