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Flashcards in Lecture 3 Deck (53):

What do we know that doesn't cause stuttering? (4)

1. Structural deficiences causes stuttering
2. Oral fixation
3. Punishment from God
4. Psychoneurosis originating at the snal stage of psychosexual development (Fenichel, 1945)


What makes stuttering difficult to explain?


1. Depending on what aspect of stuttering, you can come up with a specific reason or expectation
2. Onset or development
3. Variability


How distinct is diffentiating typical vs. atypical disfluency?

Not very distinct


When does developmental stuttering usually emerge?

Between the ages of 2 to 4


How sudden can the emergence of stuttering be?

emerges very suddenly


Why does stuttering tend to emerge between the ages of 2 to 4?

This is when syntax starts to play a role in language


What is one of the biggest risk factors for persistent stuttering?



What gender has a higher percentage of stuttering persistence?



What four things make up a good theory?

1. Validity and ability to predict
2. Elegance and parsimoniousness
3. Testable and flexible
4. Explanatory power


Some theories focus on the ___________ of stuttering: others focus on __________ (through not mutually exclusive)

1. Moment
2. Etiology


How else can theories be further categorized?


1. Breakdown
2. Repressed need
3. Anticipatory struggle


In regards to stuttering theories, what does breakdown mean?

Talking about the moment of breakdown, underlying etiology that is assumed.

Underlying thing in stutterers that cause breakdown.


In regards to stuttering theories, what does repressed need mean?

Stuttering emerges because of the stutterers need to achieve some kind of goal


In regards to stuttering theories, what does anticipatory struggle mean?

speaker holds some belief that speaking is difficult and does something to interfere with smooth effective communication


What is the cerebral dominance theory about?

The two hemispheres of the brain are fighting for dominance and this causes stuttering to occur.


What are the possible causes of cerebral dominance?


hereditary influence (i.e., genetics)



emotional arousal/fatigue


What is the cause of the failure of automaticity?

Stuttering results from the attempt to exercise conscious control over the automatic process of speech


When was the diagnosogenic theory dominant?

the 1940's and 1950's


In regards to the diagnosogenic theory dominant, how is stuttering created?

stuttering is created by the listener, who reacts negatively to normal disfluency


What popular study is about the diagnosogenic theory?

The Tudor study, a.k.a "the monster study"


What is the Tudor study about?

The researchers attempted to turn orphans into people who stutter by reacting negatively towards regular disfluencies.


Did the Tudor study cause orphans to become stutterers?

No, the individuals reported later in life that they were not people who stutter


What do many pediatricans say to parents of people who stutter?

"ignore it and it will go away"


What is the conspiracy of silence?

Individuals in a family do not talk about or address the issue of stuttering and so it becomes something that is to be ignored and never discussed.


What kind of reaction is caused by anticipatory avoidance?

An anticipatory, apprehensive, hypertonic avoidance reaction.


When does anticipatory avoidance occur?

what the speaker does while trying not to stutter again


What is the continuity hypothesis say about stuttering development?

Stuttering develops out of normal fluency breaks


In regards to the continuity hypothesis, how does tension and fragmentation increase?


Tension and fragmentation increase as communicative pressure increases, this pattern becomes chronic

Person becomes aware of communicative pressure and causes the speaker to react to normal disfluencies to an abnormal way, leading to stuttering like disfluencies


What is the approach-avoidance conflict about?


The desire to avoid speaking outweighs the desire to speak --> stuttering or silence

The desire to speak outweighs the desire the avoid speaking --> fluent speech production.


In regards to psycholinguistic models, what did Bernstein and Ratner say?

Difficulty encoding syntactic units in early stuttering


In regards to psycholinguistic models, what did Wingate say?

Stuttering is created by difficulty transitioning between onsets and rimes of words


What is the neuropsycholinguistic theory?


Asychronous arrival of segmental and suprasegmental information

Typical and atypical disfluency determined by speaker's perception of time pressure


What is the covert-repair hypothesis?


o Internal, pre-articulatory monitor repairing utterance

Before articulation takes place, the system is monitoring the phonological decoding process and when it detects errors, it fixes the errors.

When the repairs are made, that leads to stuttering


What is the Vicious circle hypothesis?


Hyper-functional monitoring of otherwise normal linguistic-speech plans

Over monitoring- attempts to repair even when there are no errors -> leads to stuttering


What is the explan model?


Dys-synchrony between planning (linguistic) and execution (motor); linguistic "not ready," but sent to motor anyway.

Stuttering is resulting when the language is not fully developed before it is sent off to the motor area


What are computational models?

uses computers and mathematical equations to explain behavior


What did the computational model completed by West and Mysak reveal?


they used wire diagrams

Failure of the automaticity of speech circuits within speech or language system, or between thought-language-speech systems.


What did the adaptive motor theory (AMT) model reveal?

Intermittent flaw in sensory-motor or motor-sensory integration


What did Max's computational model reveal?


weakness in feed forward system --> over-dependence on feedback (i.e., sensory) information

Tested via DIVA


In regards to the influence from social cognition, what is social cognition?

Social cognition refers to the thoughts and expectation a speakers and those in the speaker's environment hold

(Social cognitive interference: communicative pressure)


The speech networks of PWS are unusually vulnerable to _____________ from social cognition (not social anxiety).



Why are multifactorial models important?

Multifactorials models provide comprehensive explanations


What is Zimmerman's disorder of movement about?


stuttering due to reduced tolerance/ instability of the oral movements necessary for speech

Brainstem reflex responses for speech are over-inhibited/ facilitated when speech structures exceed their typical ranges


In regards to the demands and capacities model, stuttering emerges when?

Stuttering emerges when the capacities of the child for fluency are less than the demands of the communicative environment

Good model to use to explain to parents why children stutter)


In regards to the demands and capacities model, when does stuttering occur?

stuttering occurs when the demands exceed the capacities that the child has

(Capacities represent the child’s speech abilities)

(Demand: time pressure, linguistic load)


In regards to the multifactorial-dynamic model, when does stuttering emerge?

stuttering emerges from the complex, non-linear interaction of many factors


In regards to the multifactorial-dynamic model, when is the stuttering experience present?

The stuttering experience is present even when a listener is unable to perceive it


What did conture and colleagues bring in?

They brought in emotions


What model did conture and colleagues make?

Communicative emotional model


In regards to the communicative emotional model, what are proximal contributors?

speech and language differences in a person who stutters that might lead to stuttering


In regards to the communicative emotional model, what are contributing factors?

when emotions and temperament come into play


What is the dual diathesis model?

How the interaction between these emotions diathesis and speech and language diathesis turn children into stutterers.


Why is the multifactorial perspective comprehensive but also warrants caution?

If the theory cannot be disproven, it has no use