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Flashcards in Lecture 7 Deck (68):
1

What's the world's population of stutterers?

6,815,000,000

2

What is the stuttering incidence (recovery) for the world?

(5-12%) 341,000,000

3

What is the stuttering prevalence (persistent) for the world?

(.7%) 48,000,000

4

What is the prevalence of stuttering in the U.S?

(0.7%) 2,150,000

5

What are the sources of our knowledge of stuttering?

- Parental report
- Child's speech, reactions, and tests.
- Standardized tests
- Instrumental data
- Genetics

6

Why are parental reports used as a source?

The most skilled person to identify when something is going wrong.

7

What kinds of things do standardized tests determine?

- Characteristics
- Quantify over features
- Temperamental
- Attitudes
- Feelings

8

When does stuttering start to emerge?

- Between 2 to 3 years

9

____% of children start to stutter between the ages of 18 and 42 months.

85%

10

What are longitudinal studies considered?

The gold standard

11

What is the genetic factors in childhood?

2.1 males to 1 female

12

What is the genetic factors in adulthood?

4 males to 1 female

13

Stuttering has been documented in how many cultures?

All of them

14

What did Wendell Johnson think about the documentation of stuttering?

He believed that there was a tribe in Africa that didn't have any stutterers. This was a result of them not having a word for stuttering.

15

What races have a higher incidence of stuttering?

All of them have the same

16

Why disorder in children tend to have a higher incidence of stuttering, but show low emotional reactivity to their stuttering?

Children with Down Syndrome

17

Approximately how many people are considered persistent chronic stutterers in the US?

5 million (I think this was the answer).

18

How many children have a sudden onset of stuttering?

41%

19

How many children have a intermediate onset of stuttering?

32%

20

How many children have a casual onset of stuttering?

27%

21

What do the types of onset for stuttering tell us?

It tells us that most kids have a sudden or intermediate onset of stuttering

22

What did Yairi say about the primary characteristics of stuttering?

stuttering like disfluencies

23

How controversial are counting single-syllable repetition as stuttering?

Very controversial

24

What percent of children exhibit at least one of the secondary characteristics?

52%

25

What are some secondary characteristics of stuttering?

♣ non speech behavior
♣ avoidance
♣ try to get through a block
♣ eye blinking
♣ tapping on the table
♣ jerking head
♣ moving your whole body
♣ facial contortions
♣ respiratory irregularities
♣ others

26

What percentage of stutterers did clinicians say were mild?

35%

27

What percentage of stutterers did clinicians say were moderate?

45%

28

What percentage of stutterers did clinicians say were severe?

20%

29

What percentage of stutterers did parents say were mild?

45%

30

What percentage of stutterers did parents say were moderate?

27%

31

What percentage of stutterers did parents say were severe?

28%

32

What type of stuttering does the SLD method measure?

Overt features

33

What percentage of children were reported to have an illness at the onset of stuttering?

14%

34

What percentage of children were reported to be emotional upset at the onset of stuttering?

40%

35

What percentage of children were reported to behaviorally stress at the onset of stuttering?

35%

36

What percentage of children were reported to have rapid language develop at the onset of stuttering?

40%

37

Sometimes children who stutter with have a higher _____________ vocabulary than _________ vocabulary?

Expressive

Receptive

38

What percentage of children were reported to have word finding problems at the onset of stuttering?

43%

39

What is the puppet task?

Children identification with (no stutter) or non-fluent (stuttering) puppet. They are asked to choose one of them.

40

How have we figured out about children's reactions to stuttering?

1. Parent's reports
2. Children's response to clinician probing.

41

What children were found to have awareness of their stuttering according to parent reports and clinician report?

Some children exhibit awareness of, and reaction to, their stuttering soon after onset.

42

What did the puppet method find out about child's awareness?

children have indicated sharp rise in awareness between age 4 and 5.

43

_____________ awareness comes in much earlier than _____-______ awareness.

prioperspective

meta-cognitive awareness

44

Illness is often a key contributing factor to the onset of stuttering?

False

45

What percentage of children will naturally recover?

75-90%

46

What is the range for the percentage of children that will stutter at some point?

5 to 12

47

What is the range for the percentage of children that will persist to stutter?

10-25

48

What factors help to determine persistence or recovery?

The act of developing

Family

Temperament

49

When does natural recovery typically take place?

a year to 18 months after stuttering onset

50

We currently think that the percentage of natural recover is higher or lower than what Yairi says?

Higher

51

Researchers currently think that the percent of chronic stuttering (21%) is what?

Is higher than presented

52

What is the percentage of males that persist?

30%

53

What is the percentage of females that persist?

18%

54

What is the percentage of males that recover?

70%

55

What is the percentage of females that recover?

82%

56

What is the male/female ratio of persistence?

3.67 m/f

57

What is the male/female ratio of recovery?

1.89 m/f

58

What are the primary factors for risk of persistence?

o Family history
o Gender
o Stuttering trends – what does it look like throughout development (increase or decrease?)
o Duration of stuttering events – longer it happens = greater risk factor
o Age at onset
o Disfluency type
o Disfluency length

59

What are the (secondary) lesser factors for risk of persistence?

♣ Severity – recovered kids had greater onset
♣ Secondary characteristics
♣ Phonology – higher rate of phonological disorders of kids who stutter than norm
♣ High Expressive language skills/low receptive skills or the opposite
♣ Acoustic Features – start looking at format transitions

60

What are the (tertiary) lesser factors for risk of persistence?

♣ Concomitant disorders
♣ Awareness; Emotional reactions

61

What are non-influential factors for persistence?

o Physical development
o Nationality
o Socioeconomic status of family
o Emotional and/or communicative conflicts
o Shock or fright
o Imitation
o Illness

62

What disorders have a prevalence for the general population of stutterers?

- Phonology
- Language
- Learning disabilities
- Reading disabilities
- Other disabilities

63

What percentage of stutters have a phonology disorder?

General population of disorder?

16%

6%

64

What percentage of stutters have a language disorder?

General population of disorder?

10%

7%

65

What percentage of stutters have a learning disabilities?

General population of disorder?

7%

&

66

What percentage of stutters have a reading disabilities?

General population of disorder?

6%

6%

67

What percentage of stutters have a other disabilities?

General population of disorder?

5%

N/A

68

Which of the following factors does not contribute to the onset of stuttering?

Imitation