Lecture 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 6 Deck (39):
1

At the University of Iowa, there was a shift from neurophysiological to what?

psychological focus

2

Does anticipation cause stuttering?

it does not cause stuttering

3

Can all PWS anticipate stuttering at the same level?

There is a small amount not predicted; kids are not as "effective."

4

How can anticipation be explained?

Anticipation is either a signal that something has gone wrong in system or when anticipates something wrong has occured

5

What is the consistency effect?

Stuttering occurs on similar words/at similar junctures over repeated readings

6

What is the most likely underlying mechanism of the consistency effect?

Builds anticipation of that word word and this causes stuttering

7

What is the role of cues?

A feature/segment of speech can be associated with stuttering through a learning process

8

In regards to the role of cues, what is the associate learning?

Learning to attach a fear with a particular word and then stuttering on that word

9

In regards to the role of cues, what is the adjacency effect?

Stuttering "congregates" around certain junctures in speech-language stream.

10

What are brown's 4 factors?

1. Word-initial
2. Grammatical function
3. Position in sentence
4. Word length

11

In regards to stuttering, are all phones/sounds equally difficulty/easy?

yes

12

What kind of words are associated with adults who stutter?

Content words

13

What kind of words are associated with children who stutter?

Function words

14

When are blocks most likely to happen when speaking an utterance?

first or second word of an utterance

15

Generally speaking, do stutterers stutter more on longer or shorter words?

Longer

16

In regards to information load, ________ predictability yeilds lower probability for stuttering.

high

17

In regards to linguistic stress, ____________ linguistic yields higher probability for stuttering.

Greater

18

In regards to communicative pressure, what is communicative responsibility?

Extent to which a person is attempting to convey information

19

In regards to communicative pressure, what is important to know about propositionality?

High propositionality is associated with more stuttering than less

20

In regards to communicative pressure, what is important to know about the nature of relationship?

Stutterers have an easier time talking to certain people. (e.g., some stutterers find it easier to talk to senior citizens).

21

Does a stutterer stutter more or less when cursing?

Less

22

What is the speaking alone effect?

PWS tend not to stutter when talking to themselves alone

23

How does time pressure affects PWS?

It increases the amount of stuttering events

24

How does listener reactions/social approval affect PWS?

It increases the amount of stuttering events

25

What novel conditions and/or modes of speaking have a positive affect on stuttering?

(2)

Foreign accent
Acting

26

How does engaging in concurrent activity affect stuttering?

Doing different things at the same time could reduce stuttering

27

How can emotional arousal affect stuttering?

It can reduce stuttering (e.g., when I get mad, I don't stutter)

28

What is the adaptation effect?

stuttering diminishes over repeated readings

29

What are some explanations for the adaptation effect?

(4)

1. Unlearning anxiety
2. Anxiety reduced due to discomfirmation of expectancies.
3.Stuttering itself reduces fear
4. Motor rehearsal

30

What is the response-contingent stimulation?

When you use negative reinforcement to stop stuttering

31

Is the response contingent stimulation effective for both adults and children?

It is effective for young children (i.e., Lidcomb program) and not effective for older children/adults.

32

What is the white noise effect?

Stuttering diminshes in the presence of white noise (or "masking" noise)

33

What is the cause behind the white noise effect?

Probably due to distraction

34

What two things make up altered auditory feedback?

(2)

1. Delayed auditory feedback
2. Frequency altered feedback

35

What is Delayed auditory feedback (DAF)?

speaker’s voice is played back with slight delay; shown to reduce stuttering in some PWS (opposite effect in PWNS).

36

What is Frequency-altered feedback (FAF)?

speaker’s voice is played back at higher/lower frequency with slight delay; shown to reduce stuttering in some PWS.

37

What are the three things that cause AAF to work?

o “choral effect” – speaks in unison with another person. Stuttering ends up being eliminated.

o Provides additional feedback that PWS can utilize for speech production, particularly in terms of inverse models (i.e., prediction of speech targets/feedback)

o Reduced rate

38

What is the metronome effect?

speaking with a metronome reduces stuttering

39

Why does the metronome effect work?

(2)

Rhythmicity

Reduced rate