Noraepinephrin vs. noradrenaline
same thing mayyyyyyynnne
bmp without any neurotransmitters intervening
- increases the rate of spontaneous depolarisation, which increases the heart rate
- increases the SR uptake of Ca2+ (more can be released)
decreases rate of spontaneous depolarisation and decreases membrane potential
Starling's Law of The Heart
"As the resting ventricular volume is increased, the force of contraction is increased"
voltage sensitive - stimulated by the repolarisation phase of the action potential.
sarcomere length in resting cardiac muscle is ____ and develop maximum force when stretched to ____
sarcomere length in resting cardiac muscle is _1.8μm_ and develop maximum force when stretched to _2.1μm_
Which numbers indicate:
a) where L-type Ca2+ channels open then close
b) where Na+ channels open and close
c) where K+ is pumped out
a) open at 1, close at 3
b) open at 0, close at 1
c) starts pumping out at 2, until a new AP initiates
which region of the curve is due to the If (funny current)
what is represented by each curve mayne?
1 = active tension in skeletal muscle
2 = active tension in cardiac muscle
3 = passive tension in cardiac muscle
4 = passive tension in skeletal muscle
Cardiac muscle is electrically __________ whereas skeletal muscle is electrically _________
Cardiac muscle is electrically _coupled_ whereas skeletal muscle is electrically _isolated_
increasing heart rate...
increases contractive force because there is less time for Ca2+ to be pumped out of the cell. Termed "automacity"
increased inotropy (presence of Noradrenaline) will...
increase active tension at any given length