Lecture 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 5 Deck (42):
1

before birth, blood leaves the right atrium to bypass the lung through:

Ductus arteriosus and
foramen ovale

2

A connection between the 6th aortic arch:

Ductus arteriosus

3

A hole between the right and left atria, allowing blood to pass from the right side to the left side and not ever get pumped into the lungs:

Foramen ovale

4

Allows blood to skip past the lungs and join up with partially oxygenated blood that is being pumped out of the left ventricle:

Ductus arteriosus

5

Where does the spent blood from the fetus go?

Umbilical artery

6

The distal end of the internal iliac artery is an old connection of the _________ which goes towards the placenta

Umbilical artery

7

Oxygenated blood returning to the fetus returns via the:

Umbilical vein

8

Where does more oxygen-rich blood pass through on the fetus?

Foramen ovale over to the left side

9

A pathway from the placenta to the upper region of the IVC bypasses the liver through the:

Ductus Venosus

10

The _____ umbilical vein eventually degenerates

right

11

Closes at the moment of birth:

Foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus

12

What closes the foramen ovale?

interatrial flap valve

13

The umbilical vein becomes the:

round ligament of the liver

14

Ductus arteriosus turns into what in the adult?

Ligamentum arteriosum

15

Ductus venosus turns in what in the adult?

Ligamentum venosum

16

The thinnest, smoothest part of the interatrial wall:

Fossa ovalis

17

When the foramen ovale fuses into the interatiral wall, it then becomes:

Fossa ovalis

18

4 functions of the integumentary system:

-protection
-thermoregulation
-sensory
-synthesis

19

Removal of cellular debris and invading micro-organisms:

Phagocytes

20

2 types of phagocytes:

Microphages
Macrophages

21

Natural killer cells adhere to abnormal cells and tear them open with an enzyme called:

Perforin

22

Responsible for "cell-mediated immunity"
-a specific defense against invading foreign cells:

T-cells

23

Responsible for "humoral immunity"
-defense by means of antibodies:

B-cells

24

T-lymphocytes:

Specific antibodies

25

B-lymphocytes:

Specific antibodies and natural antibodies

26

Proteins that have the shape of a letter "Y":

Antibodies

27

4 types of T-lymhpocytes:

Natural killer
Helper
Memory
Suppressor

28

Matures in bone marrow

B-lymphocytes

29

Matures in thymus gland

T-lymphocytes

30

Made up of 5 antibodies:

IgM

31

Made up of 2 antibodies :

IgA

32

Main antibody in blood:

IgG

33

A new class of antibodies that begins production before birth :

Natural antibodies

34

Part of a waste removal system that helps clean up dead, dying, and damaged cells of "self"

Natural antibodies

35

Superficial layer of perineal muscles

Urogenital diaphragm

36

Intermediate layer of perineal muscles

Pelvic diaphragm

37

Deep layer of perineal muscles

Transversalis fascia

38

Hindgut in perineum sympathetic innervation segmental levels:

T10-L2

39

Hindgut in perineum parasympathetic innervation segmental levels:

Pelvic outflow, S2-4

40

Sympathetic innervation of bladder:

T12

41

Parasympathetic innervation of bladder:

Sacral outflow, S2-4

42

Body-wall branches of internal iliac artery:

1. Iliolumbar
2. Lateral sacral
3. Sup. gluteal
4. Inf. gluteal
5. Internal pudendal
6. Obturator