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1

Genes are:

unit of heredity

2

Traits are:

characteristics

3

Genomes are:

all the DNA contained within the chromosomes

4

Approximately how many genes code for proteins that perform most life functions?

20 000 - 25 000

5

Approximately how many DNA base pairs per set of chromosomes?

3 billion

6

The four major groups of cellular macromolecules are:

1. lipids
2. carbohydrates
3. proteins
4. nucleic acids

7

What are lipids?

Molecules that form fats, phospholipids, waxes, steroids; function in energy metabolism and components of membranes.

8

What are carbohydrates?

Molecules composed of hydrocarbon-rings, which form monosaccharides and polysaccharides; function in energy metabolism and storage polymer formation.

9

What is an example of a monosaccharide?

glucose

10

What is an example of a polysaccharide?

starch

11

What are proteins?

polymers of amino acids (polypeptides); function in cell structures, immune defense, as enzymes; proteome

12

What is a proteome?

All of the proteins that an organism can make.

13

What are nucleic acids?

DNA or RNA; polymers of nucleotides; hereditary information, direct protein synthesis.

14

Each nucleotide of DNA contains one:

nitrogenous base

15

What are the nitrogenous bases?

1. adenine
2. thymine
3. cytosine
4. guanine

16

What is a nucleotide?

a molecule containing a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base

17

What is a triplet code?

genetic information stored in the linear sequence of bases

18

Start codon:

ATG (codes for methionine)

19

What are the three different traits?

1. morphological traits
2. physiological traits
3. behavioural traits

20

morphological traits:

affect the appearance, form, and/or structure of an organism

21

physiological traits:

affect how an organism functions

22

behavioural traits:

affect the ways an organism responds to the environment

23

Traits are affected by:

the gene allele that is expressed

24

Traits are expressed:

at different levels of biological organisation

25

Traits are governed:

both by genes and by the environment

26

What is a morph?

A contrasting form within a single species (2 or more phenotypes of the same species that occupy the same habitat at the same time, within a population with random mating).

27

Genetic variation is a result of different types of changes at the DNA molecular level:

1. gene mutations
2. chromosomal mutations
3. aneuploidy

28

What are gene mutations?

any change in the local DNA sequence as simple as a single nucleotide change; create new alleles

29

What are chromosomal mutations?

any change in the structure of the chromosome; deletions, inversion, translocations, or duplications

30

What is aneuploidy?

chromosomes lost or gained