Flashcards in Lecture--Chapter 1 Deck (45)
Define biological evolution:
The genetic makeup of a population can change over many generations.
Define natural selection:
The gradual, non-random process by which biological traits become either more or less common in a population as a function of differential reproduction of their bearers; beneficial alleles have a higher probability of being passed onto subsequent generations.
Random DNA mutations lead to:
1. neutral alleles
2. beneficial alleles
3. deleterious alleles
no advantage or disadvantage to the individual
are advantageous to individuals since they make them better able to compete for resources and reproduce
make individuals less able to compete for resources and reproduce
What are the 2 different experimental approaches that genetics research uses?
1. hypothesis testing
2. discovery-based science
What are the three fields of genetics research?
1. transmission genetics
2. molecular genetics
3. population genetics
examines how traits are passed from one generation to the next
deals with the molecular features of DNA and how these underlie gene expression
deals with the genetic composition of populations and how it changes over time and space
What does transmission genetics entail?
1. looks at patterns of inheritance (Mendelian and non-Mendelian)
2. the basic experimental approach in transmission genetics is the genetic cross
What is the genetic cross?
the mating of 2 individuals and analysis of the traits of their offspring over several generations
What does molecular genetics entail?
1. goal is to describe the molecular features of gene structure and function, scaling from DNA molecules to whole genomes
2. molecular technologies allow the introduction of genes into animals and plants--treatment for genetic diseases; agriculture modification of animals and plants in various ways