boy - un niño (or muchacho, or chico). Note that masculine nouns usually end in -o, and use the indefinite article un.
girl - una niña (or muchacha, or chica). Note that feminine nouns usually end in -a, and use the indefinite article una. In this case, the change from -o to -a results in a completely different word in English (from "boy" to "girl").
a handsome man
un hombre guapo
handsome - guapo. Note that adjectives in Spanish usually come after the noun
a good-looking girl
una niña guapa
good looking (female) - guapa. Note that the adjective's gender is feminine (ending in -a) to match the gender of the noun
a pretty girl
una niña bonita
cute/pretty - bonita
the (masculine) - el. Note that the article must match the noun in gender. El is used for masculine nouns
the (feminine) - la. Note that la is the article used for feminine nouns
woman- la mujer
the (plural, masculine) - los. Note that the article matches the noun in gender and number. Also note that los is the plural form of the article el. Masculine plural nouns usually end in -es and -os, while female plurals end in-as
the pretty girls
las niñas bonitas
the (plural, feminine ) - las. Note that the adjective (bonitas) matches the noun (niñas) in both number and gender
to be - ser. Note that ser is an irregular verb in Spanish, and is one of the most commonly used verbs. The other way of saying "to be" is the verb estar, which we will learn more about later
The man is handsome
El hombre es guapo
he/she/it is - es. Es is the third-person singular in the present tense of the verb ser - "to be."
She is an enthusiastic teacher
Ella es una maestra entusiasta
teacher - el maestro, la maestra
What is the difference between the words el and él?
el is the definite masculine article "the"
él is the third person singular masculine pronoun "he"
The boy is a student
El niño es un estudiante
student - el/la estudiante. Note that estudiante is a fixed noun whose ending does not vary according to gender
I am a student
(Yo) soy una estudiante
I am - soy. Note that the subject pronoun yo ("I") is optional in Spanish. It is usually preferable to say simply: "Soy una estudiante." For masculine uses, say 'un' and for feminine uses, say 'una'.
I am tall
Yo soy alto
tall - alto/a
Is he tall?
¿Es alto (él)?
Note that the pronoun (él) often comes after the adjective (alto) in a question, and is usually optional anyway
Who am I?
¿Quién soy (yo)?
Remember that in Spanish, the pronoun (yo) can be omitted
you (informal and formal)
tú (informal), usted (formal)
The word tú is usually used with friends and children, while usted (abbreviated Ud.) is used for more formal relationships or to show seniority
You are (tú) handsome (masculine)
Tú eres guapo
you are - eres. If this sentence had been for "You (formal)", then the Spanish translation would have been Usted es guapo.
Is she short?
¿Es baja (ella)?
short - bajo. Note that the pronoun ("ella") is optional in a question, as long as it is clear who is being spoken about
We are boys
we are - somos
Is (it) a boy?
¿Es un niño?
In Spanish, the word "it" really doesn't exist, because even common nouns are given a gender. The word "it" is usually omitted where it would otherwise be in English
We are fun
(Nosotros) somos divertidos
fun - divertido. Remember that in Spanish, the adjective must agree with the noun in gender and quantity. Since the noun nosotros is masculine and plural, the adjective divertidos must be plural
We are women
Nosotras somos mujeres
we - nosotros, nosotras. Note that the form of the word "we" varies depending on the genders of the group members. A mixed group of males & females would use the masculine nosotros
They are men
(Ellos) son hombres
they are - son
The children are tall
Los niños son altos
Note that in Spanish, a plural noun ending in -os can mean either all masculine nouns, or a mix of masculine and feminine nouns. When specifying a feminine only group, one must add -as, as in niñas
book - el libro