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Flashcards in Leukemia Deck (13)
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1

What is leukemia

a cancer of the blood forming elements

2

What are the two types of leukemia

acute: immature cells- more aggressive
chronic: mature and functioning cells

-can be some younger cells
-mainly in myloid stem cells

3

leukemia more common in ____

men

4

clones abnormal _____ cells in _____ and _____

hematopoetic, bone marrow, lymph tissue

5

The two types of acute leukemia

AML and ALL

6

AML also ANLL

myeloid
incidence rate increases exponentially after 40
median age diagnosed is 67
40% cure rate
left untreated, can die with in months
frequency same in all decades of life
more common in whites
more common in men
conduction and consolidation
-chemotherpay

7

ALL

most common in children
30% of all cases in children
most common childhood cancer
25% of all childhood malignancies
peak between 2-4 and again after 50
1-4, 9x higher incidence rate than 20-24
more common in males
identical twins, 100% incidence
induction, consolidation, and maintenance
disease sometimes goes to brain
-intrathecal chemo

8

risk factors for acute leukemia

exposure to ionizing radiation
exposure to chemicals
chemotherapy
genetics
viruses (HIV, risk increased 10x b/w 30-70)

9

___% of AML cases correlated to smoking

20

10

Early/ Late symptoms for Acute

fatigue
weakness
bruising
bleeding from the gums
nose bleeds
infection and fever
malaise, dyspnea, bone pain, wt loss, skin lesions
headaches
light headed
dizziness
tachy cardia
hypersensitivity to cold
exercise intolerance
nausea, constipation
impotence

11

How is Acute diagnosed

abnormal blood count
bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
CXR to identify any physical mass
>30% blast cells, gives us diagnosis

12

Prognostic Factors

- older patients that are ill do worse
- elevated blood cell counts
-sepsis
-CNS involvement
- leukemia from myelodysplastic syndrome (preleukemias)

13

what is the 5 year survival rate?

26% survival