Flashcards in Oncology Nursing Deck (43)
About how many women will develop cancer?
About how may men will develop cancer?
Cancer contributes to _/4 deaths.
Cancer ____ to heart disease as the most common cause of death.
Cancer will grow as long as it has ____ and _____.
nutrients and space
What is a cancer cell?
uncontrollable growth of irregular cells
abnormal appearing of cells
does not mean malignant
variance of size and shape of cell
Good: has appearance of cell they originated from
Bad: Cannot tell where it came from (progressed cancers)
1. poor cell differentiation
2. Invades other tissues
3. Grow at new sites
4. Avoid immune system
Study of cancer
stops cells from proliferating
tumor suppressor genes
How do cancer cells get started?
1. Exposure to carcinogens
Exposure to Carcinogens:
Incomplete- requires same cell to be exposed again after initiation.
Complete- directly causes the cancer
3 Stage Theory:
1. Initiation- start with altered cell
2. Promotion- enhances, alters, and lets it change
3. Progression- neoplasm (new cell)
controls for cancer cell
controls proliferation of a normal cell
the grade of the cell = ?
the level of differentiation
How do cancers grow?
1. Reproducing cells
2. Doubling time
30 doublings = ?
What is the earliest a cancer can be detected on an x-ray?
30 doublings (1 cm)
How many doublings lead to death?
Cancer can also be detected by:
A change in blood counts
Cancer cells have to complete the cell cycle.
Do they have a restriction?
What is doubling time?
The time it takes for the cell to double in size
Is a tumor cell just one type of cell?
What is it called?
How do cancers metastasize?
1. Invasion of adjacent tissues
2. Enter blood and lymph vessels ***
3. Invasion/ evasion of immune system
4. Reentrance into distant tissue
5. Implantation of malignant cells in new tissue AKA seeding