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Flashcards in Oncology Nursing Deck (43)
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1

About how many women will develop cancer?

1/3

2

About how may men will develop cancer?

1/2

3

Cancer contributes to _/4 deaths.

1

4

Cancer ____ to heart disease as the most common cause of death.

2nd

5

Cancer will grow as long as it has ____ and _____.

nutrients and space

6

What is a cancer cell?

uncontrollable growth of irregular cells

7

Disorganized growth

dysplasia

8

increased cellularity

hyperplasia

9

abnormal appearing of cells
does not mean malignant

metaplasia

10

variance of size and shape of cell

pleomorphism

11

Good: has appearance of cell they originated from
Bad: Cannot tell where it came from (progressed cancers)

Differentiation

12

Cancer Cells:

1. poor cell differentiation
2. Invades other tissues
3. Grow at new sites
4. Avoid immune system
5. Autonomy

13

Study of cancer

idiology

14

stops cells from proliferating

tumor suppressor genes

15

How do cancer cells get started?

1. Exposure to carcinogens
2. initiation
3. promotion
4. progression
5. metastasis

16

Exposure to Carcinogens:
1. incomplete-?
2. complete-?

Incomplete- requires same cell to be exposed again after initiation.
Complete- directly causes the cancer

17

3 Stage Theory:
1. initiation-?
2. promotion-?
3. progression-?

1. Initiation- start with altered cell
2. Promotion- enhances, alters, and lets it change
3. Progression- neoplasm (new cell)

18

oncogene

controls for cancer cell

19

proto oncogene

controls proliferation of a normal cell

20

the grade of the cell = ?

the level of differentiation

21

How do cancers grow?

1. Reproducing cells
2. Doubling time

22

Doubling time:
30 doublings = ?

1 cm

23

What is the earliest a cancer can be detected on an x-ray?

30 doublings (1 cm)

24

How many doublings lead to death?

40

25

Cancer can also be detected by:

A change in blood counts

26

Cancer cells have to complete the cell cycle.
Do they have a restriction?

no

27

What is doubling time?

The time it takes for the cell to double in size

28

Is a tumor cell just one type of cell?
What is it called?

no
Tumor Heterogeneity

29

How do cancers metastasize?
5 ways

1. Invasion of adjacent tissues
2. Enter blood and lymph vessels ***
3. Invasion/ evasion of immune system
4. Reentrance into distant tissue
5. Implantation of malignant cells in new tissue AKA seeding

30

when cancer cells break away from original tumor and are in blood cells

intravasation