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Flashcards in LO3 Deck (48)
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1
Q

Name the 15 parts of the digestive system

A

Salivary glands
Bucal cavity
Tongue
Epiglottis
Oesophagus
Stomach
Liver
Bile duct
Gall bladder
Pancreas
Pancreatic duct
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum
Anus

2
Q

Function salivary glands

A

Make/release saliva into bucal cavity. To moisten food so it’s easier to swallow. Contains amylase enzyme to start chemical digestion if sugars

3
Q

Function bucal cavity

A

Opening in the body between jaws and cheek where food enters. Chewing takes place (mechanical digestion)

4
Q

Function tongue

A

Included to complete mechanical digestion as it moves good around

5
Q

Function epiglottis

A

Flap of cartilage acting as a lid to prevent food/liquid entering larynx/trachea/respiratory system. The lid closes while swallowing food

6
Q

Function oesophagus

A

Muscular tube from bucal cavity to stomach. Lined with muscles to push the food down in a rhythmic motion (peristalsis)

7
Q

Function stomach

A

Receives chewed food from oesophagus. Tiny glands in stomach lining secrete gastric juice containing acid mucus and enzymes. To mechanically/chemically digests the food

8
Q

Function liver

A

Main function is to process nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. Bile from liver is stored in the hall bladder before being secreted into small intestine. Bike emulsifies fat (breaks into smaller molecules) to aid chemical digestion

9
Q

Function bile duct

A

Small tube carrying bile from gallbladder to the small intestine

10
Q

Function gallbladder

A

Small sac shaped organ beneath liver. Bike is stored here after secretion if the liver but before it is released into small intestine. Bile is green alkaline fluid aiding digestion of fats

11
Q

Function pancreas

A

Large gland behind stomach secreting digestive enzymes into small intestine. Secreting hormones insulin glucagon into the blood

12
Q

Function pancreatic duct

A

Small tube between pancreas and duodenum (start of small intestine) carrying digestive enzymes from pancreas to help chemical digestion in the small intestine

13
Q

Function small intestine

A

Start of intestine runs between stomach and large intestine. Made up of four sections
Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum
Caecum

Ileum is covered in villi to increase SA and rate of absorption of nutrients into the blood

14
Q

Function large intestine

A

Wider shorter than small intestine. Divided into the Cecum colon and rectum. The absorption of water and the formation of faeces happens here

15
Q

Function rectum

A

Faeces stored in the rectum until they are passed out of the body through the anus

16
Q

Function anus

A

The opening of the body at the end I of the digestive tract. Where solid matter leaves the body.

17
Q

Define digestión

A

The breakdown of food into molecules that it can be absorbed into the blood/ dissolved into the plasma

18
Q

Define mechanical digestion

A

Mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of food to make it smaller

19
Q

Define chemical digestion

A

Where nutrients are broken down by enzymes to smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the blood and used by cells

20
Q

What is the digestive role of the pancreas

A

Pancreas produces digestive enzymes releases into the duodenum. To assist the body to digest fats

21
Q

What is the digestive role of bile

A

Digestive juice produced by liver.
To help the body digest fats.
Stored in the gallbladder
Enters the small intestine through bile duct
Bile emulsifies fats and neutralises fats

22
Q

Define emulsification

A

Emulsification is the process of increasing the surface area of fats in the duodenum. By breaking down large insoluble molecules into fatty acids

23
Q

Define absorption

A

Refers to the movement of nutrients, water, electrolytes from the lumen of the small intestine into the cell, then into the blood

24
Q

What is the process of absorption (digestion)

A

Digested food arrives in the ileum
Inside the ileum villi increase the SA
Molecules (sugars,amino acids,glycerol) pass through the villi to the capillaries/lacteal
Nutrients transported to liver
Assimilation occurs in the liver

25
Q

Define assimilation

A

The movement/distribution of digested food molecules into the cells of the body to where they are used

26
Q

Where does assimilation occur

A

Small intestine through the villi
Liver distributes nutrients to the cells when needed
e.g glucose respiration

27
Q

How is the villi adapted for absorption

A

Villi walls are one cell thick- short diffusion path quick absorption

Network of blood capillaries- to transport nutrients (glucose/amino acids) into the blood. Short diffusion to increase efficiency

Lacteal- transports fatty acids/glycerol away from the small intestine in the lymph

28
Q

Define lacteal

A

Its function is to transport fatty acids/glycerol away from small intestine in the lymph

Lymphatic system is the absorption of fatty molecules in digestive system

29
Q

Explain IBS

A

Problem with digestion as the food moves either to fast/slow through digestive system due to mixed signals between system/brain. Also because problems absorbing bile.

Absorb to fast- diarrhoea not enough H2O absorbed
Absorb to slow- constipation to much H2O absorbed

30
Q

Symptoms of IBS

A

Stomach pain
diarrhoea/constipation
bloating
excessive wind
sudden need to go to toilet
bowels not fully emptied
mucus passing through anus

31
Q

Causes of IBS

A

No exact known cause but linked to increased sensitivity of gut to certain foods.
Problems digesting food
Triggered by something eaten
Stress

32
Q

Treatments for IBS

A

Currently no treatment for IBS, people manage their symptoms
Identify triggers
Low fodmap diet (to reduce pain/discomfort associated w/ IBS)
Avoid stress
Eat regular meals

33
Q

Impacts on daily life IBS

A

Need/worry to go to toilet restrict going outside/socialising
Abdominal pain cause pro longed period of absence from school/work/disrupt sleep
Symptoms are embarrassing
Unable to leave house

34
Q

Explain coeliac disease

A

Autoimmune condition (body attacks itself). Immune system attacks gliadin (found in gluten) by mistake producing antibodies which cause the intestine to become inflamed and villi flattened, decreasing ability to absorb nutrients.

Coeliac is not a allergy/intolerance it is an auto immune response

35
Q

Symptoms of coeliac disease

A

Stomach pain
Indigestion
Diarrhoea/constipation
loss of appetite
Feeling tired

Severe symptoms
Malnutrition
Stunted growth
Weight loss

36
Q

Causes of coeliac disease

A

Often genetical,
Strongly associated with number of genetic mutations affecting HLA-DQ genes (responsible for development of immune system)
Introducing gluten to early into baby’s diet can increase their chances

37
Q

Treatments of coeliac disease

A

Switch to gluten free diet to avoid long term health damage
Vaccinations (flu) more susceptible to infections
Vitamin/mineral supplements to correct any dietary deficiencies

38
Q

Impacts of coeliac disease on daily life

A

Struggle to find gluten free meals in restaurants
Reading food labels
Having to create a gluten free area
More expensive food
Time off fro being ill

39
Q

Explain gallstones

A

Gallstones form if there are unusually high levels of cholesterol/bilirubin (waste product) inside gallbladder.
Chemical imbalances cause tiny crystals and grow into solid stones.

40
Q

Symptoms of gallstones

A

Severe abdominal pain
Feeling sick/vomiting
Temperature
Diarrhoea
Loss of appetite
Jaundice

41
Q

Treatments of gallstones

A

Depends on scenario:
Active monitoring

Surgery to remove gallbladder

Medication to dissolve small gallstones (however can take multiple months, can reoccur, not always effective)

Lithotrispy tiny endoscope probe delivers shock waves to shatter gallstone

41
Q

Causes of gallstones

A

By imbalance of chemicals in the make up of bile inside the gallbladder.
Become more common if overweight/obese over 40
Poor diet
Family history

42
Q

Impacts of gallstones on daily life

A

After surgery people may experience diarrhoea/bloating after eating fatty foods
Aggressive episodes of pain (unpredictable)
Time off
Painful surgery process

43
Q

Three techniques used to monitor digestive malfunctions

A

Ultrasound
Gastroscopy
Cholangiography

44
Q

Explain ultrasound

A

Used to examine organs in abdomen
Hand held probe is moved over examined area to form an image.
Image is formed by sound waves bouncing off body tissues
Gallstones

45
Q

Explain Gastroscopy

A

Uses an endoscope (camera moving through digestive system) to examine oesophagus, stomach, duodenum. To investigate cause of symptoms.
Gallstones,IBS,coeliac

46
Q

Explain Cholangiography

A

Procedure to investigate state of gallbladder
Using dye to show up on x-ray (injected) during surgery/endoscope.
The dye will reveal abnormalities with bile/pancreatic systems

47
Q

How is each malfunction diagnosed

A

IBS- blood test to exclude other diseases, no known blood test to diagnose IBS
Coeliac- blood test where person has to eat gluten 6-8 weeks. Biopsy
Gallstones- ultrasound, gastroscopy (endoscope), cholangiography