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Flashcards in Lower limb Deck (89):
1

List the bones of the foot:

Phalanges
Metatarsals
Sesamoid bones
Tarsals

2

Other important anatomy of the foot (besides bones):

Joints of phalanges and metatarsals
Arches

3

Lower leg bones:

Tibia
Fibula

4

Anatomy of lower limb:

Foot
Ankle joint
Lower leg
Femur
Patella
Knee joint

5

How are bones of the foot similar to bones of the hand?

There are 26 bones in the foot (compared to 27 in the hand) divided into three groups:
14 Phalanges
5 Metatarsals
7 Tarsals (compared to 8 carpals in the hand)

6

The dorsum or dorsal surface of the foot is:

The superior surface of the foot.

7

The plantar surface of the foot is:

Inferior or posterior aspect of the foot.

8

Phalanges of the foot (or digits) are also called

toes

9

The phalanges (toes) are numbered:

1-5

10

The first digit of the foot has ____ phalanges and are called_____ & ______.

2/proximal and distal

11

Second through fifth digit of the foot have ___ phalanges and they are called ____, _____, and ______.

3/proximal, middle and distal.

12

The head of the phalanx is:

the rounded distal portion.

13

The body (shaft) of the phalanx is:

Central portion.

14

The base of the phalanx is:

Expanded proximal portion.

15

Metatarsals are:

the bones of the instep, numbered 1-5, and consist of a head, body and base.

16

The 5 metatarsal heads form:

the "ball" of the foot.

17

Which metatarsal is the shortest and thickest?

the first

18

The base of the 5th metatarsal contains:

a prominent tuberosity.

19

The tuberosity on the base of the 5th metatarsal provides for:

attachment of a tendon.

20

The tuberosity on the base of the 5th metatarsal is a common site for:

fractures

21

The tuberosity on the base of the 5th metatarsal must be:

well visualized on the radiograph.

22

Interphalangeal joint (IP) is:

Between proximal and distal phalanges of the 1st digit.

23

Proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP) are:

Between proximal and middle phalanges 2-5.

24

Distal interphalangeal joints (DIP) are:

Between middle and distal phalanxes 2-5.

25

Metatarsophalangeal Joint (MTP joint) is:

Between heads of metatarsals and bases of phalanges.

26

Tarsometatarsal Joint (TMT joint) is:

Between tarsals and bases of metatarsals.

27

Sesamoid bones

Small, detached bones embedded in certain tendons.

28

Sesamoid bones of the lower limb:

Largest is patella, Two on plantar surface at head of 1st metatarsal. Medial side is tibial sesamoid, lateral side is fibular sesamoid.

29

Sesamoid bones of the upper limb:

Most often found on palmar surface near MCP joint.

30

Fractures of sesamoid bones in foot:

cause pain when bearing weight.

31

Type of projection to view sesamoid bones of the foot:

Tangential

32

The foot contains the following seven tarsals:

Calcaneus (os calcis)
Talus (astragalus)
Navicular (scaphoid)
Cuboid
Medial cuneiform (first cuneiform)
Intermediate cuneiform (second cuneiform)
Lateral cuneiform (third cuneiform)

33

The largest and strongest tarsal bone is:

Calcaneus (os calcis)

34

The tuberosity of the calcaneus is:

a process off the posterior-inferior aspect of calcaneus, the attachment site for the Achilles tendon, and a common site for bone spurs.

35

What is the prominent process on the medial proximal aspect of the calcaneus?

the Sustentaculum Tali.

36

What does sustentaculum tali literally mean?

"support for the talus"

37

What is located on the lateral aspect of the calcaneus (directly across from the sustentaculum tali)?

Peroneal Trochlea (trochlear process)

38

The calcaneus articulates with ______ anteriorly.

cuboid

39

The calcaneus articulates with the ______ superiorly.

talus

40

The three articular facets on the calcaneus that join with the talus are:

Middle articular facet
Anterior articular facet
Posterior articular facet

41

The middle, anterior, posterior articular facets (on the calcaneus) and the talus form the:

Subtalar joint (talocalcaneal joint).

42

The weight of the body is transmitted to the ground at:

the subtalar joint.

43

The groove between the middle and posterior articular facets on the calcaneus is:

the calcaneus sulcus.

44

The calcaneus sulcus corresponds to a similar groove on the inferior surface of the talus called:

the talus sulcus.

45

The calcaneus sulci and the sulcus talk form an opening (which ligaments pass through) in the middle of the subtalar joint called:

the Sinus Tarsi or tarsal sinus

46

What is the second largest tarsal bone?

the talus.

47

Where is the talus located?

between the lower leg and calcaneus.

48

What transmits from the tibia the weight of the body anterior toward the toes?

the talus

49

How many bones does the talus articulate with and what are their names?

4. Tibia, fibula, calcaneus, navicular.

50

The superior surface of the talus is:

the trochlear surface.

51

What does the trochelar surface articulate with?

The tibia.

52

The inferior surface of the talus has a groove called ______ which forms the roof of the sinus tarsi.

the sulcus tali

53

Where does the navicular lie?

on the medial side of the foot.

54

What surface of the navicular articulates with the talus?

the proximal surface

55

The distal surface of the navicular articulate with:

the three cuneiforms

56

The three wedge-shaped bones arraigned in a row, located anterior to the navicular and posterior to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd metatarsals are:

the three cuneiforms

57

Where is the cuboid located?

the lateral side of the foot, distal to the calcaneus, proximal to the 4th and 5th metatarsals.

58

The longitudinal arch functions as:

a shock absorber to distribute the weight of the body in all directions which permits smooth walking.

59

The longitudinal arch has two components:

a medial and lateral component.

60

Describe the transverse arch:

runs from side to side and assists in supporting longitudinal arch.

61

The ankle joint is formed by:

the tibia, fibula and talus.

62

The lateral malleolus is:

the expanded distal end of the fibula.

63

The medial malleolus is:

the expanded distal end of the tibia.

64

The inferior portions of tibia and fibula form a deep "socket" or three-sided opening called the

mortise.

65

The superior portion of the talus fits into the

mortise.

66

What is not seen on a true AP projection of the ankle and why?

The ankle mortise, because of the more posterior position of the distal fibula.

67

The _______ is the weight bearing bone of the lower leg.

Tibia

68

What is the name of the large prominence located on the mid anterior surface of the proximal tibia that serves as a distal attachment for the patellar tendon?

Tibial tuberosity

69

What is the name of the small prominence located on the posterolateral aspect of the medial condyle of the femur that is an identifying landmark to determine possible rotation of the lateral knee?

Adductor tubercle.

70

A small, triangular depression located on the tibia that helps form the distal tibiofibular joint is called the:

Fibular notch.

71

The articular facets of the proximal of the proximal tibia are also referred to as the:

Tibial plateau.

72

The articular facets slope _______degrees posteriorly.

10-15

73

The most proximal aspect of the fibula is the:

Apex or styloid process

74

The extreme distal end if the fibula forms the:

Lateral malleolus

75

What is the name of the largest sesamoid bone in the body?

Patella.

76

What are two other names for the patellar surface of the femur?

Intercondylar sulcus & trochlear groove.

77

What is the name of the depression located on the posterior aspect of the distal femur?

Intercondylar sulcus

78

Why must the central ray be angled 5-7 degrees cephalad for a lateral knee position?

Because the medial condyle extends lower than the lateral condyle of the femur.

79

The slightly raised area located on the posterior aspect of the medial femoral condyle is called the:

Adductor tubercle

80

What are the two palpable bony landmarks found on the distal femur?

Medial epicondyle & lateral epicondyle.

81

The general region of the posterior knee is called the:

Popliteal region

82

True or false: Flexion of 20 degrees of the knee forces the patella firmly against the patellar surface of the femur.

False

83

True or false: The patella acts like a pivot to increase the leverage of a large muscle found in the anterior thigh.

True

84

The posterior surface of the patella is normally rough

False

85

For which large muscle does the patella serve as a pivot to increase the leverage?

Quadriceps femoris muscle

86

List the correct terms for the joint between the patella & distal femur as well as the joint between the two condyles of the femur & tibia.

Patellofemoral joint & femorotibial joint.

87

List the four major ligaments of the knee.

Fibular collateral (lateral)
Tibial collateral (medial)
Posterior cruciate
Anterior cruciate

88

The crescent-shaped fibrocartilage disks that act as shock absorbers in the knee joint are called

Medial and lateral menisci

89

List the two bursae found in the knee joint.

Suprapatellar bursa & infrapatellar bursa