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Radiograph

An image of a patient's anatomic part(s), as produced by the action of X-rays on an image receptor.

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Radiography

The process and procedures of producing a radiograph.

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Radiograph vs X-ray film

X-ray film specifically refers to to physical piece of material on which a latent (non processed) radiographic image is stored. The term radiograph includes the recording medium *and* the image.

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IR

Image receptor. The device that captures the radiographic image that exits the patient.

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CR

Central ray. Refers to the center most portion of the X-ray beam emitted from the X-ray tube; the portion of the beam that has the least divergence.

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Five general functions of a radiographic examination.

1. Positioning the body part and alignment with the IR and CR.
2. Application of radiation protection measures and devices.
3. Selection of exposure factors (radiographic technique) on the control panel.
4. Instructions to the patient related to respiration & initiation of the x-ray exposure.
5. Processing of the IR.

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Anatomic position

Upright position with arms abducted slightly, palms forward, & head and feet directed straight ahead.

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What four devices can be considered IR's?

Cassette with film
Image plate (IP)
Solid-state detectors
Fluoroscopy screen

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What are the 4 fundamental body planes referred to in radiography?

Sagittal, oblique, horizontal, coronal

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Describe the sagittal plane.

Any longitudinal plane that divides the entire body (or part) into right and left segments.

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Coronal plane

Divides the entire body (or part) into anterior and posterior segments.

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Horizontal or axial plane

Plane that passes crosswise through the body or body part at right angles to the longitudinal plane, dividing the body into superior and inferior portions. Also referred to as transverse.

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Oblique plane

A longitudinal or transverse plane that is at an angle or slant and not parallel to the sagittal, coronal, or horizontal planes.

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What are planes used for in radiography?

To center a body part to the IR or CR and to ensure body part is properly orientated and aligned with the IR.

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What are planes used for in CT, MRI, and ultrasound?

To identify the orientation of anatomic cuts or slices demonstrated in the procedure.

15

Describe the posterior body surface.

Refers to the back half of the patient. Also called dorsal. Includes the bottom of the feet and back of hands.

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Describe the anterior body surface.

Refers to the front half of the patient. Includes the top of the feet and the palms of the hands.

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Describe "plantar."

Refers to the sole or posterior surface of the foot.

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Describe "dorsum."

Refers to the anterior surface (top) of the foot.

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Describe the dorsal surface of the hand.

Refers to the back or posterior aspect of the hand.

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Describe the Palmer side of the hand.

Refers to the palm of the hand, or the anterior or ventral surface.

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Cephalad

Refers to parts toward the head of the body.

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Caudad

Refers to parts away from the head of the body.

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Superior

Refers to nearer the head or situated above.

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Inferior

Refers to nearer the feet or situated below.

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Medial

In the anatomic position, it is the "inside" part closest to the median and or midline of the body.

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Lateral

In the anatomic position, it is the part away from the center, or away from the median plane or midline of the body.

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Proximal

Near the source or beginning.

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Distal

Away from the source or beginning.

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Ipsilateral

Part or parts on the same side of the body.