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Radiographic Positioning > Projection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Projection Deck (26):
0

What does projection refer to?

The path of the central ray.

1

AP projection (anteroposterior)

A perpendicular central ray enters the anterior body surface and exits the posterior body surface. In a true AP projection without rotation, the CR is perpendicular to the coronal plane and parallel to the MSP

2

An AP projection of the foot is also called:

a dorsoplantar projection

3

PA projection (posteroanterior)

A perpendicular central ray enters the posterior surface of the body and exits the anterior body surface.

4

AP oblique projection

During an oblique projection the CR enters the body or body part from a side angle following an oblique plane. An AP oblique projection enters the anterior surface. An AP oblique projection of the upper or lower limbs must also include a qualifying term indicating which way it is rotated such as medial or lateral.

5

PA oblique projection

During an oblique projection the CR enters the body or body part from a side angle following an oblique angle. A PA projection enters the posterior surface. A PA oblique projection of the upper or lower limbs must also include a qualifying term indicating which way it is rotated such as medial or lateral.

6

Mediolateral and lateromedial projections

A lateral projection is described by the path of the CR. A Mediolateral projection enters the medial side and exits the lateral side. A lateromedial projection enters the lateral and exits the medial. (used with limbs)

7

An AP projection of the foot is also called:

Dorsoplantar

8

What three positions can PA projections be achieved in?

Seated, prone and lateral decubitus

9

Axial projection

In an axial projection, there is longitudinal angulation of the central ray with the long axis of the body OR a specific body part. The angle must be greater than ten degrees.

10

How can an axial projection be achieved when keeping a perpendicular central ray?

By angling the entire body or body part.

11

Tangential Projection:

•Means touching a curve or surface at only one point.
•Describes a projection that merely skims a body part to project that part into profile and away from other body structures.

12

Lordotic position - AP axial projection

Demonstrates the apices of the lungs. The long axis of the body is angled rather then the CR.

13

Transthoracic lateral projection

A unique lateral projection through the thorax used for shoulder radiography. Requires a positioning term (right or left lateral position) to indicate which shoulder is closest to the IR & is being examined.

14

Dorsoplantar and plantodorsal projections

Dorsoplantar (DP) describes the path of the CR from the dorsal surface to the plantar surface.
A special plantodorsal projection of the heel bone (calcaneus) is called an axial plantodorsal projection because the angled CR enters the plantar surface of the foot & exits the dorsal surface.

15

Parietoacanthial and acanthioparietal projections

With the parietoacanthial projection, the CR enters the parietal bone and exits at the acanthion (junction of the nose and upper lip).
The opposite CR direction would describe the acanthioparietal projection. A.K.A. PA Waters and AP reverse Waters methods.

16

Submentovertex (SMV) and verticosubmental (VSM) projections

For submentovertex, the CR enters below the chin, or mentum, and exits at the vertex or top of the skull.
The less common verticosubmental projection enters at the top of the skull and exits below the mandible.

17

Cephalad

Refers to parts toward the head of the body.

18

Caudad

Refers to parts away from the head of the body.

19

True or false: when a range of central ray angles, such as 5 to 15 degrees, is recommended for a given projection, the term "axial" is used because the angulation *could* exceed 10 degrees.

True

20

Lateral projection

A perpendicular CR enters one side of the body or body part, passes transversely along the coronal plane, and exits the opposite side.

21

What terms are used with lateral projections of limbs?

Lateromedial or Mediolateral.

22

Oblique projections

Enter the body or body part from a side angle following an oblique plane. Can be lateral, AP, or PA.

23

True or false: All oblique projections are achieved by rotating the patient with the CR perpendicular to the IR.

False. *Most,* not all.

24

Describe a right posterior oblique position.

It places the right posterior surface of the body closest to the IR and corresponds with the AP oblique projection.

25

What must accompany an AP or PA oblique projection of the upper or lower limbs?

A qualifying term such as medial or lateral rotation.